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DateTime::Locale(3pm)          User Contributed Perl Documentation          DateTime::Locale(3pm)

       DateTime::Locale - Localization support for DateTime.pm

         use DateTime::Locale;

         my $loc = DateTime::Locale->load('en_GB');

         print $loc->native_locale_name(),   "\n",
               $loc->datetime_format_long(), "\n";

         # but mostly just things like ...

         my $dt = DateTime->now( locale => 'fr' );
         print "Aujourd'hui le mois est " . $dt->month_name(), "\n";

       DateTime::Locale is primarily a factory for the various locale subclasses. It also
       provides some functions for getting information on all the available locales.

       If you want to know what methods are available for locale objects, then please read the
       "DateTime::Locale::Base" documentation.

       This module provides the following class methods:

   DateTime::Locale->load( $locale_id | $locale_name | $alias )
       Returns the locale object for the specified locale id, name, or alias - see the
       "DateTime::Locale::Catalog" documentation for a list of built in names and ids. The name
       provided may be either the English or native name.

       If the requested locale is not found, a fallback search takes place to find a suitable

       The fallback search order is:


       Eg. For locale "es_XX_UNKNOWN" the fallback search would be:

         es_XX_UNKNOWN   # Fails - no such locale
         es_XX           # Fails - no such locale
         es              # Found - the es locale is returned as the
                         # closest match to the requested id

       Eg. For locale "es_Latn_XX" the fallback search would be:

         es_Latn_XX      # Fails - no such locale
         es_Latn         # Fails - no such locale
         es_XX           # Fails - no such locale
         es              # Found - the es locale is returned as the
                         # closest match to the requested id

       If no suitable replacement is found, then an exception is thrown.

       Please note that if you provide an id to this method, then the returned locale object's
       "id()" method will always return the value you gave, even if that value was an alias to
       some other id.

       This is done for forwards compatibility, in case something that is currently an alias
       becomes a unique locale in the future.

       This means that the value of "$locale->id()" and the object's class may not match.

       The loaded locale is cached, so that locale objects may be singletons. Calling
       "DateTime::Locale->register()", "DateTime::Locale->add_aliases()", or
       "DateTime::Locale->remove_alias()" clears the cache.

         my @ids = DateTime::Locale->ids();
         my $ids = DateTime::Locale->ids();

       Returns an unsorted list of the available locale ids, or an array reference if called in a
       scalar context. This list does not include aliases.

         my @names = DateTime::Locale->names();
         my $names = DateTime::Locale->names();

       Returns an unsorted list of the available locale names in English, or an array reference
       if called in a scalar context.

         my @names = DateTime::Locale->native_names();
         my $names = DateTime::Locale->native_names();

       Returns an unsorted list of the available locale names in their native language, or an
       array reference if called in a scalar context. All native names are utf8 encoded.

       NB: Some locales are only partially translated, so their native locale names may still
       contain some English.

   DateTime::Locale->add_aliases ( $alias1 => $id1, $alias2 => $id2, ... )
       Adds an alias to an existing locale id. This allows a locale to be loaded by its alias
       rather than id or name. Multiple aliases are allowed.

       If the passed locale id is neither registered nor listed in DateTime::Local::Catalog's
       list of ids, an exception is thrown.

        DateTime::Locale->add_aliases( LastResort => 'es_ES' );

        # Equivalent to DateTime::Locale->load('es_ES');

       You can also pass a hash reference to this method.

        DateTime::Locale->add_aliases( { Default     => 'en_GB',
                                         Alternative => 'en_US',
                                         LastResort  => 'es_ES' } );

   DateTime::Locale->remove_alias( $alias )
       Removes a locale id alias, and returns true if the specified alias actually existed.

        DateTime::Locale->add_aliases( LastResort => 'es_ES' );

        # Equivalent to DateTime::Locale->load('es_ES');


        # Throws an exception, 'LastResort' no longer exists

   DateTime::Locale->register( { ... }, { ... } )
       This method allows you to register custom locales with the module. A single locale is
       specified as a hash, and you may register multiple locales at once by passing an array of
       hash references.

       Until registered, custom locales cannot be instantiated via "load()" and will not be
       returned by querying methods such as "ids()" or "names()".

        register( id           => $locale_id,
                  en_language  => ..., # something like 'English' or 'Afar',

                  # All other keys are optional. These are:
                  en_script    => ...,
                  en_territory => ...,
                  en_variant   => ...,

                  native_language  => ...,
                  native_sript     => ...,
                  native_territory => ...,
                  native_variant   => ...,

                  # Optional - defaults to DateTime::Locale::$locale_id
                  class   => $class_name,

                  replace => $boolean

       The locale id and English name are required, and the following formats should used
       wherever possible:

        id:   languageId[_script][_territoryId[_variantId]]

        Where:  languageId = Lower case ISO 639 code -
                Always choose 639-1 over 639-2 where possible.

        script = Title Case ISO 15924 script code

        territoryId = Upper case ISO 3166 code -
                      Always choose 3166-1 over 3166-2 where possible.

        variantId = Upper case variant id -
                    Basically anything you want, since this is typically the
                    component that uniquely identifies a custom locale.

       You cannot not use '@' or '=' in locale ids - these are reserved for future use. The
       underscore (_) is the component separator, and should not be used for any other purpose.

       If the "native_*" components are supplied, they must be utf8 encoded.

       If omitted, the native name is assumed to be identical to the English name.

       If class is supplied, it must be the full module name of your custom locale. If omitted,
       the locale module is assumed to be a DateTime::Locale subclass.


            ( id           => 'en_GB_RIDAS',
              en_language  => 'English',
              en_territory => 'United Kingdom',
              en_variant   => 'Ridas Custom Locale',

        # Returns instance of class DateTime::Locale::en_GB_RIDAS
        my $l = DateTime::Locale->load('en_GB_RIDAS');

            ( id               => 'hu_HU',
              en_language      => 'Hungarian',
              en_territory     => Hungary',
              native_language  => 'Magyar',
              native_territory => 'Magyarorszag',

        # Returns instance of class DateTime::Locale::hu_HU
        my $l = DateTime::Locale->load('hu_HU');

            ( id    => 'en_GB_RIDAS',
              name  => 'English United Kingdom Ridas custom locale',
              class => 'Ridas::Locales::CustomGB',

        # Returns instance of class Ridas::Locales::CustomGB
        my $l = DateTime::Locale->load('en_GB_RIDAS');

       If you register a locale for an id that is already registered, the "replace" parameter
       must be true or an exception will be thrown.

       The complete name for a registered locale is generated by joining together the language,
       territory, and variant components with a single space.

       This means that in the first example, the complete English and native names for the locale
       would be "English United Kingdom Ridas Custom Locale", and in the second example the
       complete English name is "Hungarian Hungary", while the complete native name is "Magyar
       Magyarorszag". The locale will be loadable by these complete names (English and native),
       via the "load()" method.

       These are added in one of two ways:

       1.  Subclass an existing locale implementing only the changes you require.

       2.  Create a completely new locale as a new class.

       In either case the locale MUST be registered before use.

   Subclassing an existing locale
       The following example sublasses the United Kingdom English locale to change some the full
       date and time formats.

         package Ridas::Locale::en_GB_RIDAS1;

         use strict;
         use DateTime::Locale::en_GB;

         use base 'DateTime::Locale::en_GB';

         sub date_format_full   { 'EEEE d MMMM y' }

         sub time_format_full   { 'HH mm zzzz' }


       Now register it:

            ( id    => 'en_GB_RIDAS1',

              # name, territory, and variant as described in register() documentation

              class => 'Ridas::Locale::en_GB_RIDAS1',

   Creating a completely new locale
       You are, of course, free to subclass DateTime::Locale::Base if you want to, though this is
       not required.

       Remember to register your custom locale!

       Of course, you can always do the registration in the module itself, and simply load it
       before using it.

       A completely new custom locale, one which does not subclass DateTime::Locale::Base, must
       implement a number of methods.

       The following methods can be used to get information about the locale's id and name.

       ·   $locale->id()

           The complete locale id, something like "en_US".

       ·   $locale->language_id()

           The language portion of the id, like "en".

       ·   $locale->script_id()

           The script portion of the id, like "Hant".

       ·   $locale->territory_id()

           The territory portion of the id, like "US".

       ·   $locale->variant_id()

           The variant portion of the id, like "PREEURO".

       ·   $locale->name()

           The locale's complete name, which always includes at least a language component, plus
           optional territory and variant components. Something like "English United States". The
           value returned will always be in English.

       ·   $locale->language()

       ·   $locale->script()

       ·   $locale->territory()

       ·   $locale->variant()

           The relevant component from the locale's complete name, like "English" or "United

       ·   $locale->native_name()

           The locale's complete name in localized form as a UTF-8 string.

       ·   $locale->native_language()

       ·   $locale->native_script()

       ·   $locale->native_territory()

       ·   $locale->native_variant()

           The relevant component from the locale's complete native name as a UTF-8 string.

       The following methods all return an array reference containing the specified data.

       The methods with "format" in the name should return strings that can be used a part of a
       string, like "the month of July". The stand alone values are for use in things like
       calendars, and the narrow form may not be unique (for example, in day column heading for a
       calendar it's okay to have "T" for both Tuesday and Thursday).

       The wide name should always be the full name of thing in question. The narrow name should
       be just one or two characters.

       ·   $locale->month_format_wide()

       ·   $locale->month_format_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->month_format_narrow()

       ·   $locale->month_stand_alone_wide()

       ·   $locale->month_stand_alone_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->month_stand_alone_narrow()

       ·   $locale->day_format_wide()

       ·   $locale->day_format_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->day_format_narrow()

       ·   $locale->day_stand_alone_wide()

       ·   $locale->day_stand_alone_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->day_stand_alone_narrow()

       ·   $locale->quarter_format_wide()

       ·   $locale->quarter_format_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->quarter_format_narrow()

       ·   $locale->quarter_stand_alone_wide()

       ·   $locale->quarter_stand_alone_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->quarter_stand_alone_narrow()

       ·   $locale->am_pm_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->era_wide()

       ·   $locale->era_abbreviated()

       ·   $locale->era_narrow()

       The following methods return strings appropriate for the "DateTime->format_cldr()" method:

       ·   $locale->date_format_full()

       ·   $locale->date_format_long()

       ·   $locale->date_format_medium()

       ·   $locale->date_format_short()

       ·   $locale->date_format_default()

       ·   $locale->time_format_full()

       ·   $locale->time_format_long()

       ·   $locale->time_format_medium()

       ·   $locale->time_format_short()

       ·   $locale->time_format_default()

       ·   $locale->datetime_format_full()

       ·   $locale->datetime_format_long()

       ·   $locale->datetime_format_medium()

       ·   $locale->datetime_format_short()

       ·   $locale->datetime_format_default()

       A locale may also offer one or more formats for displaying part of a datetime, such as the
       year and month, or hour and minute.

       ·   $locale->format_for($name)

           These are accessed by passing a name to "$locale->format_for(...)", where the name is
           a CLDR-style format specifier.

           The return value is a string suitable for passing to "$dt->format_cldr()", so you can
           do something like this:

             print $dt->format_cldr( $dt->locale()->format_for('MMMdd') )

           which for the "en" locale would print out something like "08 Jul".

           Note that the localization may also include additional text specific to the locale.
           For example, the "MMMMd" format for the "zh" locale includes the Chinese characters
           for "day" (X) and month (X), so you get something like "8X23X".

       ·   $locale->available_formats()

           This should return a list of all the format names that could be passed to

       The following methods deal with the default format lengths:

       ·   $locale->default_date_format_length()

       ·   $locale->default_time_format_length()

           These methods return one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short", indicating the
           current default format length.

           The default when an object is created is determined by the CLDR locale data.

       ·   $locale->set_default_date_format_length($length)

       ·   $locale->set_default_time_format_length($length)

           These methods accept one of "full", "long", "medium", or "short", indicating the new
           default format length.

       There are also some miscellaneous methods locales should support:

       ·   $locale->prefers_24_hour_time()

           Returns a boolean indicating whether or not the locale prefers 24-hour time.

       ·   $locale->first_day_of_week()

           Returns a number from 1 to 7 indicating the local first day of the week, with Monday
           being 1 and Sunday being 7.

       Please be aware that all locale data has been generated from the CLDR (Common Locale Data
       Repository) project locales data). The data is incomplete, and will contain errors in some

       When reporting errors in data, please check the primary data sources first, then where
       necessary report errors directly to the primary source via the CLDR bug report system. See
       http://unicode.org/cldr/filing_bug_reports.html for details.

       Once these errors have been confirmed, please forward the error report and corrections to
       the DateTime mailing list, datetime AT perl.org.

       Support for this module is provided via the datetime AT perl.org email list. See
       http://lists.perl.org/ for more details.

       If you'd like to thank me for the work I've done on this module, please consider making a
       "donation" to me via PayPal. I spend a lot of free time creating free software, and would
       appreciate any support you'd care to offer.

       Please note that I am not suggesting that you must do this in order for me to continue
       working on this particular software. I will continue to do so, inasmuch as I have in the
       past, for as long as it interests me.

       Similarly, a donation made in this way will probably not make me work on this software
       much more, unless I get so many donations that I can consider working on free software
       full time, which seems unlikely at best.

       To donate, log into PayPal and send money to autarch AT urth.org or use the button on this
       page: http://www.urth.org/~autarch/fs-donation.html <http://www.urth.org/~autarch/fs-

       Richard Evans <rich AT ridas.com>

       Dave Rolsky <autarch AT urth.org>

       These modules are loosely based on the DateTime::Language modules, which were in turn
       based on the Date::Language modules from Graham Barr's TimeDate distribution.

       Copyright (c) 2003 Richard Evans. Copyright (c) 2004-2009 David Rolsky. All rights
       reserved. This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under
       the same terms as Perl itself.

       This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same
       terms as Perl itself.

       The full text of the license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.

       The locale modules in directory DateTime/Locale/ have been generated from data provided by
       the CLDR project, see DateTime/Locale/LICENSE.cldr for details on the CLDR data's license.


       datetime AT perl.org mailing list


perl v5.14.2                                2013-05-26                      DateTime::Locale(3pm)

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