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etags(1)                                    GNU Tools                                    etags(1)

       etags, ctags - generate tag file for Emacs, vi

       etags [-aCDGIRVh] [-i file] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file]
       [--append] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals] [--include=file]
       [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile]
       [--regex=regexp] [--no-regex] [--help] [--version] file ...

       ctags [-aCdgIRVh] [-BtTuvwx] [-l language]
       [-o tagfile] [-r regexp] [--parse-stdin=file]
       [--append] [--backward-search] [--cxref] [--no-defines] [--globals] [--no-globals]
       [--ignore-indentation] [--language=language] [--members] [--no-members] [--output=tagfile]
       [--regex=regexp] [--update] [--help] [--version] file ...

       The  etags program is used to create a tag table file, in a format understood by emacs(1);
       the ctags program is used to create a similar table in a format understood by vi(1).  Both
       forms  of  the  program  understand the syntax of C, Objective C, C++, Java, Fortran, Ada,
       Cobol, Erlang, Forth, HTML, LaTeX, Emacs Lisp/Common Lisp, Lua,  Makefile,  Pascal,  Perl,
       PHP, Postscript, Python, Prolog, Scheme and most assembler-like syntaxes.  Both forms read
       the files specified on the command line, and write a tag table (defaults: TAGS for  etags,
       tags  for  ctags)  in  the  current working directory.  Files specified with relative file
       names will be recorded in the tag table with file names relative to  the  directory  where
       the  tag  table  resides.  If the tag table is in /dev or is the standard output, however,
       the file names are made relative to the working directory.  Files specified with  absolute
       file  names  will  be  recorded  with  absolute file names.  Files generated from a source
       file--like a C file generated from a source Cweb file--will be recorded with the  name  of
       the  source file.  Compressed files are supported using gzip and bzip2.  The programs rec‐
       ognize the language used in an input file based on its file name and contents.  The --lan‐
       guage switch can be used to force parsing of the file names following the switch according
       to the given language, overriding guesses based on filename extensions.

       Some options make sense only for the vi style tag files produced by ctags; etags does  not
       recognize them.  The programs accept unambiguous abbreviations for long option names.

       -a, --append
              Append to existing tag file.  (For vi-format tag files, see also --update.)

       -B, --backward-search
              Tag  files  written  in the format expected by vi contain regular expression search
              instructions; the -B option writes them using the delimiter `?',  to  search  back‐
              wards  through  files.  The default is to use the delimiter `/', to search forwards
              through files.  Only ctags accepts this option.

              In C and derived languages, create tags for function declarations, and create  tags
              for extern variables unless --no-globals is used.

       -D, --no-defines
              Do  not  create  tag  entries for C preprocessor constant definitions and enum con‐
              stants.  This may make the tags file much smaller if many header files are tagged.

              Create tag entries for global variables in Perl and Makefile.  This is the  default
              in C and derived languages.

              Do not tag global variables in C and derived languages.  Typically this reduces the
              file size by one fourth.

       -i file, --include=file
              Include a note in the tag file indicating that,  when  searching  for  a  tag,  one
              should also consult the tags file file after checking the current file.  Only etags
              accepts this option.

       -I, --ignore-indentation
              Don't rely on indentation as much as we normally do.  Currently, this means not  to
              assume that a closing brace in the first column is the final brace of a function or
              structure definition in C and C++.

       -l language, --language=language
              Parse the following files according to the given language.  More than one such  op‐
              tions  may be intermixed with filenames.  Use --help to get a list of the available
              languages and their default filename extensions.  The `auto' language can  be  used
              to restore automatic detection of language based on the file name.  The `none' lan‐
              guage may be used to disable language parsing altogether; only regexp  matching  is
              done in this case (see the --regex option).

              Create  tag  entries for variables that are members of structure-like constructs in
              PHP.  This is the default for C and derived languages.

              Do not tag member variables.

              Only tag packages in Ada files.

              May be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command  line.   etags  will
              read from standard input and mark the produced tags as belonging to the file FILE.

       -o tagfile, --output=tagfile
              Explicit  name  of file for tag table; for etags only, a file name of - means stan‐
              dard output; overrides default TAGS or tags.  (But ignored with -v or -x.)

       -r regexp, --regex=regexp

              Make tags based on regexp matching for the files following this option, in addition
              to  the tags made with the standard parsing based on language. May be freely inter‐
              mixed with filenames and the -R option.  The regexps are cumulative, i.e. each such
              option will add to the previous ones.  The regexps are of one of the forms:

              where  tagregexp is used to match the tag.  It should not match useless characters.
              If the match is such that more characters than needed are  unavoidably  matched  by
              tagregexp,  it  may  be  useful  to add a nameregexp, to narrow down the tag scope.
              ctags ignores regexps without a nameregexp.  The syntax of regexps is the  same  as
              in  emacs.  The following character escape sequences are supported: \a, \b, \d, \e,
              \f, \n, \r, \t, \v, which respectively stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL,
              ESC, FF, NL, CR, TAB, VT.
              The modifiers are a sequence of 0 or more characters among i, which means to ignore
              case when matching; m, which means that the tagregexp will be matched  against  the
              whole  file  contents  at once, rather than line by line, and the matching sequence
              can match multiple lines; and s, which implies m and means that the  dot  character
              in tagregexp matches the newline char as well.
              The  separator,  which  is  /  in the examples, can be any character different from
              space, tab, braces and @.  If the separator character is needed inside the  regular
              expression, it must be quoted by preceding it with \.
              The  optional {language} prefix means that the tag should be created only for files
              of language language, and ignored otherwise.   This  is  particularly  useful  when
              storing many predefined regexps in a file.
              In its second form, regexfile is the name of a file that contains a number of argu‐
              ments to the --regex= option, one per line.  Lines beginning with a  space  or  tab
              are assumed to be comments, and ignored.

              Here  are some examples.  All the regexps are quoted to protect them from shell in‐

              Tag the DEFVAR macros in the emacs source files:
              --regex='/[ \t]*DEFVAR_[A-Z_ \t(]+"\([^"]+\)"/'

              Tag VHDL files (this example is a single long line, broken here for formatting rea‐
              --language=none --regex='/[ \t]*\(ARCHITECTURE\|\                        CONFIGURA‐
              TION\) +[^ ]* +OF/' --regex='/[ \t]*\          \(ATTRIBUTE\|ENTITY\|FUNCTION\|PACK‐
              AGE\( BODY\)?\ \|PROCEDURE\|PROCESS\|TYPE\)[ \t]+\([^ \t(]+\)/\3/'

              Tag TCL files (this last example shows the usage of a tagregexp):
              --lang=none --regex='/proc[ \t]+\([^ \t]+\)/\1/'

              A  regexp can be preceded by {lang}, thus restricting it to match lines of files of
              the specified language.  Use etags --help to obtain a list of the  recognized  lan‐
              guages.  This feature is particularly useful inside regex files.  A regex file con‐
              tains one regex per line.  Empty lines, and those lines beginning with space or tab
              are  ignored.  Lines beginning with @ are references to regex files whose name fol‐
              lows the @ sign.  Other lines are considered regular expressions like those follow‐
              ing --regex.
              For example, the command
              etags --regex=@regex.file *.c
              reads the regexes contained in the file regex.file.

       -R, --no-regex
              Don't do any more regexp matching on the following files.  May be freely intermixed
              with filenames and the --regex option.

       -u, --update
              Update tag entries for files specified on command line,  leaving  tag  entries  for
              other  files in place.  Currently, this is implemented by deleting the existing en‐
              tries for the given files and then rewriting the new entries at the end of the tags
              file.   It  is often faster to simply rebuild the entire tag file than to use this.
              Only ctags accepts this option.

       -v, --vgrind
              Instead of generating a tag file, write index (in vgrind format) to  standard  out‐
              put.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -x, --cxref
              Instead  of  generating  a  tag  file, write a cross reference (in cxref format) to
              standard output.  Only ctags accepts this option.

       -h, -H, --help
              Print usage information.  Followed by one or more --language=LANG  prints  detailed
              information about how tags are created for LANG.

       -V, --version
              Print the current version of the program (same as the version of the emacs etags is
              shipped with).

       `emacs' entry in info; GNU Emacs Manual, Richard Stallman.
       cxref(1), emacs(1), vgrind(1), vi(1).

       Copyright (C) 1992, 1999, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011
       Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under  the
       conditions  for  verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work is dis‐
       tributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission is granted to copy and distribute translations of this  document  into  another
       language,  under  the  above conditions for modified versions, except that this permission
       notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Tools                                   23nov2001                                    etags(1)

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