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ICONV(1)                                Linux User Manual                                ICONV(1)

       iconv - convert text from one character encoding to another

       iconv [options] [-f from-encoding] [-t to-encoding] [inputfile]...

       The  iconv program reads in text in one encoding and outputs the text in another encoding.
       If no input files are given, or if it is given as a dash (-), iconv  reads  from  standard
       input.  If no output file is given, iconv writes to standard output.

       If  no  from-encoding is given, the default is derived from the current locale's character
       encoding.  If no to-encoding is given, the default is derived from  the  current  locale's
       character encoding.

       -f from-encoding, --from-code=from-encoding
              Use from-encoding for input characters.

       -t to-encoding, --to-code=to-encoding
              Use to-encoding for output characters.

              If  the  string //IGNORE is appended to to-encoding, characters that cannot be con‐
              verted are discarded and an error is printed after conversion.

              If the string //TRANSLIT is appended to to-encoding, characters being converted are
              transliterated  when  needed and possible.  This means that when a character cannot
              be represented in the target character set, it can be approximated through  one  or
              several  similar  looking  characters.   Characters  that are outside of the target
              character set and cannot be transliterated are replaced with a question mark (?) in
              the output.

       -l, --list
              List all known character set encodings.

       -c     Silently  discard  characters  that cannot be converted instead of terminating when
              encountering such characters.

       -o outputfile, --output=outputfile
              Use outputfile for output.

       -s, --silent
              This option is ignored; it is provided only for compatibility.

              Print progress information on standard error when processing multiple files.

       -?, --help
              Print a usage summary and exit.

              Print a short usage summary and exit.

       -V, --version
              Print the version number, license, and disclaimer of warranty for iconv.

       Zero on success, non-zero on errors.

       Internally, the iconv program uses the iconv(3) function which in turn uses gconv  modules
       (dynamically  loaded  shared  libraries)  to  convert to and from a character set.  Before
       calling iconv(3), the iconv program must first  allocate  a  conversion  descriptor  using
       iconv_open(3).   The  operation of the latter function is influenced by the setting of the
       GCONV_PATH environment variable:

       *  If GCONV_PATH is not set, iconv_open(3) loads the  system  gconv  module  configuration
          cache  file  created  by iconvconfig(8) and then, based on the configuration, loads the
          gconv modules needed to perform the conversion.  If the system gconv module  configura‐
          tion  cache  file  is  not available then the system gconv module configuration file is

       *  If GCONV_PATH is defined (as a colon-separated list of  pathnames),  the  system  gconv
          module configuration cache is not used.  Instead, iconv_open(3) first tries to load the
          configuration files by searching the directories in GCONV_PATH in  order,  followed  by
          the  system default gconv module configuration file.  If a directory does not contain a
          gconv module configuration file, any gconv modules that it may contain are ignored.  If
          a directory contains a gconv module configuration file and it is determined that a mod‐
          ule needed for this conversion is available in the directory, then the needed module is
          loaded  from  that directory, the order being such that the first suitable module found
          in GCONV_PATH is used.  This allows users to use custom modules and even  replace  sys‐
          tem-provided modules by providing such modules in GCONV_PATH directories.

              Usual default gconv module path.

              Usual system default gconv module configuration file.

              Usual system gconv module configuration cache.


       Convert text from the ISO 8859-15 character encoding to UTF-8:

           $ iconv -f ISO-8859-15 -t UTF-8 < input.txt > output.txt

       The next example converts from UTF-8 to ASCII, transliterating when possible:

           $ echo abc ß α € àḃç | iconv -f UTF-8 -t ASCII//TRANSLIT
           abc ss ? EUR abc

       locale(1), iconv(3), nl_langinfo(3), charsets(7), iconvconfig(8)

       This  page  is  part of release 3.74 of the Linux man-pages project.  A description of the
       project, information about reporting bugs, and the latest version of  this  page,  can  be
       found at http://www.kernel.org/doc/man-pages/.

GNU                                         2014-07-08                                   ICONV(1)

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