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JAIL.CONF(10)                         Fail2Ban Configuration                        JAIL.CONF(10)

       jail.conf - configuration for the fail2ban server

       fail2ban.conf fail2ban.d/*.conf fail2ban.local fail2ban.d/*.local

       jail.conf jail.d/*.conf jail.local jail.d/*.local

       action.d/*.conf action.d/*.local

       filter.d/*.conf filter.d/*.local

       Fail2ban has four configuration file types:

              Fail2Ban global configuration (such as logging)

              Filters specifying how to detect authentication failures

              Actions defining the commands for banning and unbanning of IP address

              Jails defining combinations of Filters with Actions.

       *.conf  files  are  distributed  by  Fail2Ban.  It is recommended that *.conf files should
       remain unchanged to ease upgrades.   If  needed,  customizations  should  be  provided  in
       *.local  files.   For  example,  if you would like to enable the [ssh-iptables-ipset] jail
       specified in jail.conf, create jail.local containing


              enabled = true

       In .local files specify only the settings you would like to change and  the  rest  of  the
       configuration will then come from the corresponding .conf file which is parsed first.

       jail.d/ and fail2ban.d/

              In  addition  to  .local, for jail.conf or fail2ban.conf file there can be a corre‐
              sponding .d/ directory containing additional .conf files. The order e.g.  for  jail
              configuration would be:

              jail.d/*.conf (in alphabetical order)
              jail.d/*.local (in alphabetical order).

              i.e.  all  .local  files are parsed after .conf files in the original configuration
              file and files under .d directory.  Settings in the file parsed later  take  prece‐
              dence  over identical entries in previously parsed files.  Files are ordered alpha‐
              betically, e.g.

              fail2ban.d/01_custom_log.conf - to use a different log path
              jail.d/01_enable.conf - to enable a specific jail
              jail.d/02_custom_port.conf - to change the port(s) of a jail.

       Configuration files have sections, those specified with [section name], and name  =  value
       pairs.  For those name items that can accept multiple values, specify the values separated
       by spaces, or in separate lines space indented at the beginning of  the  line  before  the
       second value.

       Configuration  files  can  include  other (defining common variables) configuration files,
       which is often used in Filters and Actions. Such  inclusions  are  defined  in  a  section
       called [INCLUDES]:

       before indicates that the specified file is to be parsed before the current file.

       after  indicates that the specified file is to be parsed after the current file.

       Using  Python  "string  interpolation"  mechanisms,  other definitions are allowed and can
       later be used within other definitions as %(name)s. For example.

              baduseragents = IE|wget
              failregex = useragent=%(baduseragents)s

       Comments: use '#' for comment lines and '; ' (space is  important)  for  inline  comments.
       When using Python2.X '; ' can only be used on the first line due to an Python library bug.

       These files have one section, [Definition].

       The items that can be set are:

              verbosity level of log output: 1 = ERROR, 2 = WARN, 3 = INFO, 4 = DEBUG. Default: 1

              log target: filename, SYSLOG, STDERR or STDOUT. Default: STDERR . Only a single log
              target can be specified.  If you change logtarget from the default  value  and  you
              are using logrotate -- also adjust or disable rotation in the corresponding config‐
              uration file (e.g. /etc/logrotate.d/fail2ban on Debian systems).

       socket socket filename.  Default: /var/run/fail2ban/fail2ban.sock .  This is used for com‐
              munication  with  the fail2ban server daemon. Do not remove this file when Fail2ban
              is running. It will not be possible to communicate with the server afterwards.

              PID filename.  Default: /var/run/fail2ban/fail2ban.pid.  This is used to store  the
              process ID of the fail2ban server.

       The  following options are applicable to any jail. They appear in a section specifying the
       jail name or in the [DEFAULT] section which defines default values to be used if not spec‐
       ified in the individual section.

       filter name of the filter -- filename of the filter in /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/ without the
              .conf/.local extension. Only one filter can be specified.

              filename(s) of the log files to be monitored. Globs -- paths containing * and ?  or
              [0-9]  --  can  be used however only the files that exist at start up matching this
              glob pattern will be considered.

              Ensure syslog or the program that generates the log file isn't configured  to  com‐
              press  repeated log messages to "*last message repeated 5 time*s" otherwise it will
              fail to detect. This is called RepeatedMsgReduction in rsyslog and should be Off.

       action action(s) from /etc/fail2ban/action.d/ without the  .conf/.local  extension.  Argu‐
              ments  can be passed to actions to override the default values from the [Init] sec‐
              tion in the action file. Arguments are specified by:


              Values can also be quoted (required when value  includes  a  ",").  More  that  one
              action can be specified (in separate lines).

              list of IPs not to ban. They can include a CIDR mask too.

              command  that  is  executed  to  determine  if the current candidate IP for banning
              should not be banned. IP will not be banned if command returns  successfully  (exit
              code  0).   Like ACTION FILES, tags like <ip> are can be included in the ignorecom‐
              mand value and will be substituted before execution. Currently only  <ip>  is  sup‐
              ported however more will be added later.

              effective ban duration (in seconds).

              time  interval  (in  seconds)  before  the  current  time where failures will count
              towards a ban.

              number of failures that have to occur in the last findtime seconds to ban then IP.

              backend to be used to detect changes in the logpath. It defaults  to  "auto"  which
              will  try  "pyinotify",  "gamin"  before  "polling". Any of these can be specified.
              "pyinotify" is only valid on Linux systems with the "pyinotify"  Python  libraries.
              "gamin" requires the "gamin" libraries.

       usedns use  DNS  to  resolve  HOST  names that appear in the logs. By default it is "warn"
              which will resolve hostnames to IPs however it will also log a warning. If you  are
              using  DNS here you could be blocking the wrong IPs due to the asymmetric nature of
              reverse DNS (that the application used to write the domain name to log) compared to
              forward  DNS  that fail2ban uses to resolve this back to an IP (but not necessarily
              the same one). Ideally you should configure your applications to  log  a  real  IP.
              This can be set to "yes" to prevent warnings in the log or "no" to disable DNS res‐
              olution altogether (thus ignoring entries where hostname, not an IP is logged)..

              regex (Python regular expression) to be added to the filter's failregexes. If  this
              is  useful  for  others  using your application please share you regular expression
              with the fail2ban developers by reporting an issue (see REPORTING BUGS below).

              regex which, if the log line matches, would cause Fail2Ban not consider that  line.
              This  line will be ignored even if it matches a failregex of the jail or any of its

       Action files specify which commands are executed to ban and unban an IP address.

       Like with jail.conf files, if you desire local changes create an  [actionname].local  file
       in the /etc/fail2ban/action.d directory and override the required settings.

       Action files have two sections, Definition and Init .

       The  [Init] section enables action-specific settings. In jail.conf/jail.local these can be
       overridden for a particular jail as options of the action's specification in that jail.

       The following commands can be present in the [Definition] section.

              command(s) executed when the jail starts.

              command(s) executed when the jail stops.

              command(s) ran before any other action. It aims to verify  if  the  environment  is
              still ok.

              command(s)  that  bans  the IP address after maxretry log lines matches within last
              findtime seconds.

              command(s) that unbans the IP address after bantime.

       Commands specified in the [Definition] section are executed  through  a  system  shell  so
       shell  redirection and process control is allowed. The commands should return 0, otherwise
       error would be logged.  Moreover if actioncheck exits with non-0 status, it  is  taken  as
       indication  that  firewall  status  has  changed and fail2ban needs to reinitialize itself
       (i.e. issue actionstop and actionstart commands).

       Tags are enclosed in <>.  All the elements of [Init] are tags that  are  replaced  in  all
       action commands.  Tags can be added by the fail2ban-client using the setctag command. <br>
       is a tag that is always a new line (\n).

       More than a single command is allowed to be specified. Each command needs to be on a sepa‐
       rate  line  and  indented  with  whitespace(s)  without blank lines. The following example
       defines two commands to be executed.

        actionban = iptables -I fail2ban-<name> --source <ip> -j DROP
                    echo ip=<ip>, match=<match>, time=<time> >> /var/log/fail2ban.log

   Action Tags
       The following tags are substituted in the actionban,  actionunban  and  actioncheck  (when
       called before actionban/actionunban) commands.

       ip     IPv4 IP address to be banned. e.g.

              number of times the failure occurred in the log file. e.g. 3

       time   UNIX (epoch) time of the ban. e.g. 1357508484

              concatenated  string  of  the log file lines of the matches that generated the ban.
              Many characters interpreted by shell get escaped to prevent injection, nevertheless
              use with caution.

FILTER FILES (filter.d/*.conf)
       Filter definitions are those in /etc/fail2ban/filter.d/*.conf and filter.d/*.local.

       These  are used to identify failed authentication attempts in log files and to extract the
       host IP address (or hostname if usedns is true).

       Like action files, filter files are ini files. The main section is the  [Definition]  sec‐

       There are two filter definitions used in the [Definition] section:

              regex  that will match failed attempts. The tag <HOST> is used as part of the regex
              and is itself a regex for IPv4 addresses (and hostnames if usedns).  Fail2Ban  will
              work out which one of these it actually is.

              regex  to  identify  log  entries  that should be ignored by Fail2Ban, even if they
              match failregex.

       Fail2ban was originally written by Cyril  Jaquier  <cyril.jaquier AT fail2ban.org>.   At  the
       moment  it  is  maintained  and further developed by Yaroslav O. Halchenko <debian@onerus‐
       sian.com>,  Daniel  Black  <daniel.subs AT internode.net>  and  Steven  Hiscocks  <steven-
       fail2ban AT hiscocks.uk>  along  with  a  number of contributors.  See THANKS file shipped
       with Fail2Ban for a  full  list.   Manual  page  written  by  Daniel  Black  and  Yaroslav

       Report bugs to https://github.com/fail2ban/fail2ban/issues

       Copyright © 2013 the Fail2Ban Team
       Copyright of modifications held by their respective authors.
       Licensed  under the GNU General Public License v2 (GPL) or (at your option) any later ver‐


Fail2Ban                                   October 2013                             JAIL.CONF(10)

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