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MAKE(1)                                   User Commands                                   MAKE(1)

       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs

       make [OPTION]... [TARGET]...

       The  make  utility will determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be
       recompiled, and issue the commands to recompile them.  The manual describes the GNU imple‐
       mentation  of  make, which was written by Richard Stallman and Roland McGrath, and is cur‐
       rently maintained by Paul Smith.  Our examples show C programs, since they are  very  com‐
       mon,  but  you can use make with any programming language whose compiler can be run with a
       shell command.  In fact, make is not limited to programs.  You can use it to describe  any
       task  where  some  files  must  be  updated  automatically from others whenever the others

       To prepare to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the rela‐
       tionships among files in your program, and the states the commands for updating each file.
       In a program, typically the executable file is updated from object  files,  which  are  in
       turn made by compiling source files.

       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell


       suffices to perform all necessary recompilations.  The  make  program  uses  the  makefile
       description and the last-modification times of the files to decide which of the files need
       to be updated.  For each of those files, it issues the commands recorded in the makefile.

       make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where  name  is
       typically  a  program.   If no -f option is present, make will look for the makefiles GNU‐
       makefile, makefile, and Makefile, in that order.

       Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile.  (We  recommend  Make‐
       file  because it appears prominently near the beginning of a directory listing, right near
       other important files such as README.)  The first name checked, GNUmakefile, is not recom‐
       mended  for  most makefiles.  You should use this name if you have a makefile that is spe‐
       cific to GNU make, and will not be understood by other versions of make.  If  makefile  is
       '-', the standard input is read.

       make  updates  a  target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since
       the target was last modified, or if the target does not exist.

       -b, -m
            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.

       -B, --always-make
            Unconditionally make all targets.

       -C dir, --directory=dir
            Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If mul‐
            tiple  -C options are specified, each is interpreted relative to the previous one: -C
            / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.  This is typically used with recursive invocations
            of make.

       -d   Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  The debugging informa‐
            tion says which files are being considered for remaking, which file-times  are  being
            compared  and  with  what  results,  which  files  actually  need to be remade, which
            implicit rules are considered and which are  applied---everything  interesting  about
            how make decides what to do.

            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing.  If the FLAGS are omit‐
            ted, then the behavior is the same as if -d was specified.  FLAGS may be  a  for  all
            debugging  output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more verbose basic
            debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and
            m  for  debugging  while remaking makefiles.  Use n to disable all previous debugging

       -e, --environment-overrides
            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.

       -f file, --file=file, --makefile=FILE
            Use file as a makefile.

       -i, --ignore-errors
            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.

       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
            Specifies a directory dir to search for included makefiles.  If  several  -I  options
            are  used  to  specify several directories, the directories are searched in the order
            specified.  Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories  given  with  -I
            flags  may  come  directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.  This
            syntax is allowed for compatibility with the C preprocessor's -I flag.

       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
            Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously.  If there is more than
            one -j option, the last one is effective.  If the -j option is given without an argu‐
            ment, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.

       -k, --keep-going
            Continue as much as possible after an error.  While the target that failed, and those
            that  depend  on it, cannot be remade, the other dependencies of these targets can be
            processed all the same.

       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
            Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs run‐
            ning  and the load average is at least load (a floating-point number).  With no argu‐
            ment, removes a previous load limit.

       -L, --check-symlink-times
            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.

       -n, --just-print, --dry-run, --recon
            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them (except in certain

       -o file, --old-file=file, --assume-old=file
            Do  not  remake  the  file file even if it is older than its dependencies, and do not
            remake anything on account of changes in file.  Essentially the file  is  treated  as
            very old and its rules are ignored.

       -O[type], --output-sync[=type]
            When running multiple jobs in parallel with -j, ensure the output of each job is col‐
            lected together rather than interspersed with output from other jobs.  If type is not
            specified  or  is target the output from the entire recipe for each target is grouped
            together.  If type is line the output from each  command  line  within  a  recipe  is
            grouped together.  If type is recurse output from an entire recursive make is grouped
            together.  If type is none output synchronization is disabled.

       -p, --print-data-base
            Print the data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading  the  make‐
            files; then execute as usual or as otherwise specified.  This also prints the version
            information given by the -v switch (see below).  To print the data base without  try‐
            ing to remake any files, use make -p -f/dev/null.

       -q, --question
            ``Question  mode''.   Do not run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit
            status that is zero if the specified targets are already up to date,  nonzero  other‐

       -r, --no-builtin-rules
            Eliminate  use  of  the  built-in implicit rules.  Also clear out the default list of
            suffixes for suffix rules.

       -R, --no-builtin-variables
            Don't define any built-in variables.

       -s, --silent, --quiet
            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.

       -S, --no-keep-going, --stop
            Cancel the effect of the -k option.  This is never necessary except  in  a  recursive
            make  where -k might be inherited from the top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set
            -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.

       -t, --touch
            Touch files (mark them up to date without really changing them)  instead  of  running
            their  commands.   This  is  used to pretend that the commands were done, in order to
            fool future invocations of make.

            Information about the disposition of each target is printed (why the target is  being
            rebuilt and what commands are run to rebuild it).

       -v, --version
            Print  the  version  of  the  make  program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a
            notice that there is no warranty.

       -w, --print-directory
            Print a message containing the working directory before and after  other  processing.
            This  may be useful for tracking down errors from complicated nests of recursive make

            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.

       -W file, --what-if=file, --new-file=file, --assume-new=file
            Pretend that the target file has just been modified.  When used  with  the  -n  flag,
            this  shows you what would happen if you were to modify that file.  Without -n, it is
            almost the same as running a touch command on the given  file  before  running  make,
            except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.

            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.

       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no tar‐
       gets that were built failed.  A status of one will be returned if the -q flag was used and
       make  determines  that  a target needs to be rebuilt.  A status of two will be returned if
       any errors were encountered.

       The full documentation for make is maintained as a Texinfo manual.  If the info  and  make
       programs are properly installed at your site, the command

              info make

       should give you access to the complete manual.

       See the chapter ``Problems and Bugs'' in The GNU Make Manual.

       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University.  Further updates con‐
       tributed by Mike Frysinger.  It has been reworked by Roland McGrath.  Maintained  by  Paul

       Copyright  © 1992-1993, 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part of GNU

       GNU Make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the
       GNU  General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3
       of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

       GNU Make is distributed in the hope that it will be  useful,  but  WITHOUT  ANY  WARRANTY;
       without  even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
       See the GNU General Public License for more details.

       You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program.
       If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

GNU                                       03 March 2012                                   MAKE(1)

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