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PYTHON(1)                            General Commands Manual                            PYTHON(1)

       python - an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language

       python [ -B ] [ -b ] [ -d ] [ -E ] [ -h ] [ -i ] [ -I ]
              [ -m module-name ] [ -q ] [ -O ] [ -OO ] [ -s ] [ -S ] [ -u ]
              [ -v ] [ -V ] [ -W argument ] [ -x ] [ [ -X option ] -?  ]
              [ -c command | script | - ] [ arguments ]

       Python  is an interpreted, interactive, object-oriented programming language that combines
       remarkable power with very clear syntax.  For an introduction to programming in Python you
       are  referred to the Python Tutorial.  The Python Library Reference documents built-in and
       standard types, constants, functions and modules.  Finally, the  Python  Reference  Manual
       describes  the  syntax  and  semantics  of the core language in (perhaps too) much detail.
       (These documents may be located via the INTERNET RESOURCES below; they may be installed on
       your system as well.)

       Python's  basic  power can be extended with your own modules written in C or C++.  On most
       systems such modules may be dynamically loaded.  Python is also adaptable as an  extension
       language for existing applications.  See the internal documentation for hints.

       Documentation for installed Python modules and packages can be viewed by running the pydoc

       -B     Don't write .py[co] files on import. See also PYTHONDONTWRITEBYTECODE.

       -b     Issue warnings about  str(bytes_instance),  str(bytearray_instance)  and  comparing
              bytes/bytearray with str. (-bb: issue errors)

       -c command
              Specify the command to execute (see next section).  This terminates the option list
              (following options are passed as arguments to the command).

       -d     Turn on parser  debugging  output  (for  wizards  only,  depending  on  compilation

       -E     Ignore  environment variables like PYTHONPATH and PYTHONHOME that modify the behav‐
              ior of the interpreter.

       -h ,  -? ,  --help
              Prints the usage for the interpreter executable and exits.

       -i     When a script is passed as first argument or the -c option is used, enter  interac‐
              tive mode after executing the script or the command.  It does not read the $PYTHON‐
              STARTUP file.  This can be useful to inspect global variables or a stack trace when
              a script raises an exception.

       -I     Run Python in isolated mode. This also implies -E and -S. In isolated mode sys.path
              contains neither the script’s directory nor the user’s site-packages directory. All
              PYTHON*  environment  variables  are  ignored,  too.   Further  restrictions may be
              imposed to prevent the user from injecting malicious code.

       -m module-name
              Searches sys.path for the named module and runs the corresponding  .py  file  as  a

       -O     Turn  on  basic  optimizations.   This  changes the filename extension for compiled
              (bytecode) files from .pyc to .pyo.  Given twice,  causes  docstrings  to  be  dis‐

       -OO    Discard docstrings in addition to the -O optimizations.

       -q     Do not print the version and copyright messages. These messages are also suppressed
              in non-interactive mode.

       -s     Don't add user site directory to sys.path.

       -S     Disable the import of the module  site  and  the  site-dependent  manipulations  of
              sys.path  that  it entails.  Also disable these manipulations if site is explicitly
              imported later.

       -u     Force the binary I/O layers of stdout and stderr to be unbuffered.  stdin is always
              buffered.  The text I/O layer will still be line-buffered.

       -v     Print  a  message each time a module is initialized, showing the place (filename or
              built-in module) from which it is loaded.  When given twice, print  a  message  for
              each  file that is checked for when searching for a module.  Also provides informa‐
              tion on module cleanup at exit.

       -V ,  --version
              Prints the Python version number of the executable and exits.

       -W argument
              Warning control.  Python sometimes prints warning message to sys.stderr.  A typical
              warning  message has the following form: file:line: category: message.  By default,
              each warning is printed once for each source line where  it  occurs.   This  option
              controls  how often warnings are printed.  Multiple -W options may be given; when a
              warning matches more than one option, the action for the last  matching  option  is
              performed.   Invalid  -W  options  are  ignored (a warning message is printed about
              invalid options when the first warning is issued).  Warnings can also be controlled
              from within a Python program using the warnings module.

              The  simplest  form of argument is one of the following action strings (or a unique
              abbreviation): ignore to ignore all warnings; default  to  explicitly  request  the
              default behavior (printing each warning once per source line); all to print a warn‐
              ing each time it occurs (this may generate many messages if a warning is  triggered
              repeatedly  for  the same source line, such as inside a loop); module to print each
              warning only the first time it occurs in each module; once to  print  each  warning
              only  the  first  time  it  occurs  in  the program; or error to raise an exception
              instead of printing a warning message.

              The full form of argument is action:message:category:module:line.  Here, action  is
              as  explained  above  but only applies to messages that match the remaining fields.
              Empty fields match all values; trailing empty fields may be omitted.   The  message
              field matches the start of the warning message printed; this match is case-insensi‐
              tive.  The category field matches the warning category.  This must be a class name;
              the  match test whether the actual warning category of the message is a subclass of
              the specified warning category.  The full class name must  be  given.   The  module
              field matches the (fully-qualified) module name; this match is case-sensitive.  The
              line field matches the line number, where zero matches all line numbers and is thus
              equivalent to an omitted line number.

       -X option
              Set implementation specific option.

       -x     Skip  the first line of the source.  This is intended for a DOS specific hack only.
              Warning: the line numbers in error messages will be off by one!

       The interpreter interface resembles that of the UNIX  shell:  when  called  with  standard
       input connected to a tty device, it prompts for commands and executes them until an EOF is
       read; when called with a file name argument or with a file as standard input, it reads and
       executes  a  script  from  that  file; when called with -c command, it executes the Python
       statement(s) given as command.  Here command may contain multiple statements separated  by
       newlines.   Leading  whitespace  is  significant in Python statements!  In non-interactive
       mode, the entire input is parsed before it is executed.

       If available, the script name and additional arguments thereafter are passed to the script
       in  the Python variable sys.argv, which is a list of strings (you must first import sys to
       be able to access it).  If no script name is given, sys.argv[0] is an empty string; if  -c
       is  used,  sys.argv[0]  contains  the  string  '-c'.  Note that options interpreted by the
       Python interpreter itself are not placed in sys.argv.

       In interactive mode, the primary prompt is `>>>'; the second prompt (which appears when  a
       command is not complete) is `...'.  The prompts can be changed by assignment to sys.ps1 or
       sys.ps2.  The interpreter quits when it reads an EOF  at  a  prompt.   When  an  unhandled
       exception  occurs,  a stack trace is printed and control returns to the primary prompt; in
       non-interactive mode, the interpreter exits after printing the stack trace.  The interrupt
       signal  raises  the KeyboardInterrupt exception; other UNIX signals are not caught (except
       that SIGPIPE is sometimes ignored, in favor of the IOError exception).  Error messages are
       written to stderr.

       These are subject to difference depending on local installation conventions; ${prefix} and
       ${exec_prefix} are installation-dependent and should be interpreted as for  GNU  software;
       they may be the same.  On Debian GNU/{Hurd,Linux} the default for both is /usr.

              Recommended location of the interpreter.

              Recommended locations of the directories containing the standard modules.

              Recommended  locations  of  the directories containing the include files needed for
              developing Python extensions and embedding the interpreter.

              Change the location of the standard Python libraries.  By  default,  the  libraries
              are  searched  in  ${prefix}/lib/python<version> and ${exec_prefix}/lib/python<ver‐
              sion>, where ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix} are  installation-dependent  directories,
              both  defaulting to /usr/local.  When $PYTHONHOME is set to a single directory, its
              value replaces both ${prefix} and ${exec_prefix}.  To specify different values  for
              these, set $PYTHONHOME to ${prefix}:${exec_prefix}.

              Augments  the  default search path for module files.  The format is the same as the
              shell's $PATH: one or more directory pathnames separated by  colons.   Non-existent
              directories  are  silently ignored.  The default search path is installation depen‐
              dent, but  generally  begins  with  ${prefix}/lib/python<version>  (see  PYTHONHOME
              above).   The  default  search path is always appended to $PYTHONPATH.  If a script
              argument is given, the directory containing the script is inserted in the  path  in
              front of $PYTHONPATH.  The search path can be manipulated from within a Python pro‐
              gram as the variable sys.path.

              If this is the name of a readable file, the Python commands in that file  are  exe‐
              cuted  before  the first prompt is displayed in interactive mode.  The file is exe‐
              cuted in the same name space  where  interactive  commands  are  executed  so  that
              objects defined or imported in it can be used without qualification in the interac‐
              tive session.  You can also change the prompts sys.ps1 and sys.ps2 in this file.

              Set this to a non-empty string to cause the time module to require dates  specified
              as strings to include 4-digit years, otherwise 2-digit years are converted based on
              rules described in the time module documentation.

              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -O  option.
              If set to an integer, it is equivalent to specifying -O multiple times.

              If  this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -d option.
              If set to an integer, it is equivalent to specifying -d multiple times.

              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the  -B  option
              (don't try to write .py[co] files).

              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -i option.

              If  this  is set before running the interpreter, it overrides the encoding used for
              stdin/stdout/stderr, in the syntax encodingname:errorhandler The errorhandler  part
              is optional and has the same meaning as in str.encode. For stderr, the errorhandler
               part is ignored; the handler will always be ´backslashreplace´.

              If  this  is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -s option
              (Don't add the user site directory to sys.path).

              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -u option.

              If this is set to a non-empty string it is equivalent to specifying the -v  option.
              If set to an integer, it is equivalent to specifying -v multiple times.

              If  this  is  set to a comma-separated string it is equivalent to specifying the -W
              option for each separate value.

              If this variable is set to "random", a random value is used to seed the  hashes  of
              str, bytes and datetime objects.

              If PYTHONHASHSEED is set to an integer value, it is used as a fixed seed for gener‐
              ating the hash() of the types covered by the hash randomization.  Its purpose is to
              allow  repeatable  hashing, such as for selftests for the interpreter itself, or to
              allow a cluster of python processes to share hash values.

              The integer must be a decimal number in the range [0,4294967295].   Specifying  the
              value 0 will disable hash randomization.

       The Python Software Foundation: http://www.python.org/psf

       Main website:  http://www.python.org/
       Documentation:  http://docs.python.org/py3k/
       Developer resources:  http://docs.python.org/devguide/
       Downloads:  http://python.org/download/
       Module repository:  http://pypi.python.org/
       Newsgroups:  comp.lang.python, comp.lang.python.announce

       Python  is distributed under an Open Source license.  See the file "LICENSE" in the Python
       source distribution for information on terms &  conditions  for  accessing  and  otherwise
       using Python and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.

                                              $Date$                                    PYTHON(1)

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