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SMARTD(8)                                   2014-10-07                                  SMARTD(8)

       smartd - SMART Disk Monitoring Daemon

       smartd [options]

       smartmontools-6.4 2014-10-07 r4002

       [This  man  page is generated for the Linux version of smartmontools.  It does not contain
       info specific to other platforms.]

       smartd is a daemon that monitors the Self-Monitoring, Analysis  and  Reporting  Technology
       (SMART)  system  built into most ATA/SATA and SCSI/SAS hard drives and solid-state drives.
       The purpose of SMART is to monitor the reliability of the hard  drive  and  predict  drive
       failures, and to carry out different types of drive self-tests.  This version of smartd is
       compatible with ACS-3, ACS-2, ATA8-ACS, ATA/ATAPI-7 and earlier standards (see  REFERENCES

       smartd  will  attempt to enable SMART monitoring on ATA devices (equivalent to smartctl -s
       on) and polls these and SCSI devices every 30 minutes (configurable), logging SMART errors
       and  changes of SMART Attributes via the SYSLOG interface.  The default location for these
       SYSLOG notifications and warnings  is  system-dependent  (typically  /var/log/messages  or
       /var/log/syslog).   To  change  this  default  location,  please see the ´-l´ command-line
       option described below.

       In addition to logging to a file, smartd can also be configured to send email warnings  if
       problems are detected.  Depending upon the type of problem, you may want to run self-tests
       on the disk, back up the disk, replace the disk, or use a manufacturer´s utility to  force
       reallocation of bad or unreadable disk sectors.  If disk problems are detected, please see
       the smartctl manual page and the smartmontools web page/FAQ for further guidance.

       If you send a USR1 signal to smartd it will immediately check the status of the disks, and
       then  return  to  polling  the disks every 30 minutes. See the ´-i´ option below for addi‐
       tional details.

       smartd can be configured at start-up using the configuration file  /etc/smartd.conf  (Win‐
       dows: EXEDIR/smartd.conf).  If the configuration file is subsequently modified, smartd can
       be told to re-read the configuration file by sending it a HUP signal, for example with the
       killall -HUP smartd.

       On  startup,  if  smartd  finds a syntax error in the configuration file, it will print an
       error message and then exit. However if smartd is already running, then is told with a HUP
       signal  to  re-read  the configuration file, and then find a syntax error in this file, it
       will print an error message and then continue, ignoring the contents of the (faulty)  con‐
       figuration file, as if the HUP signal had never been received.

       When smartd is running in debug mode, the INT signal (normally generated from a shell with
       CONTROL-C) is treated in the same way as a HUP signal: it makes smartd reload its configu‐
       ration file. To exit smartd use CONTROL-\

       On  startup,  in the absence of the configuration file /etc/smartd.conf, the smartd daemon
       first scans for all devices that support SMART.  The scanning is done as follows:

       LINUX:   Examine all entries  "/dev/hd[a-t]"  for  IDE/ATA  devices,  and  "/dev/sd[a-z]",
                "/dev/sd[a-c][a-z]"  for SCSI or SATA devices.  Disks behind RAID controllers are
                not included.

       smartd then monitors for all possible SMART errors (corresponding to the ´-a´ Directive in
       the configuration file; see the smartd.conf(5) man page).

       -A PREFIX, --attributelog=PREFIX
              Writes  smartd attribute information (normalized and raw attribute values) to files
              ´PREFIX´´MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv´ or ´PREFIX´´VENDOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.csv´.  At  each
              check  cycle attributes are logged as a line of semicolon separated triplets of the
              form "attribute-ID;attribute-norm-value;attribute-raw-value;".   For  SCSI  devices
              error  counters  and temperature recorded in the form "counter-name;counter-value;"
              Each line is led by a date string of the form "yyyy-mm-dd HH:MM:SS" (in UTC).

              If this option  is  not  specified,  attribute  information  is  written  to  files
              ´/var/lib/smartmontools/attrlog.MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv´.   To  disable  attribute log
              files, specify this option with an empty  string  argument:  ´-A  ""´.   MODEL  and
              SERIAL  are  build from drive identify information, invalid characters are replaced
              by underline.

              If the PREFIX has the  form  ´/path/dir/´  (e.g.  ´/var/lib/smartd/´),  then  files
              ´MODEL-SERIAL.ata.csv´ are created in directory ´/path/dir´.  If the PREFIX has the
              form   ´/path/name´   (e.g.   ´/var/lib/misc/attrlog-´),   then   files    'nameMO‐
              DEL-SERIAL.ata.csv'  are created in directory '/path/'.  The path must be absolute,
              except if debug mode is enabled.

       -B [+]FILE, --drivedb=[+]FILE
              [ATA only] Read the drive database from FILE.  The new database replaces the  built
              in  database  by  default.   If  ´+´ is specified, then the new entries prepend the
              built in entries.  Please see the smartctl(8) man page for further details.

       -c FILE, --configfile=FILE
              Read smartd configuration Directives from FILE, instead of from the  default  loca‐
              tion  /etc/smartd.conf (Windows: EXEDIR/smartd.conf).  If FILE does not exist, then
              smartd will print an error  message  and  exit  with  nonzero  status.   Thus,  ´-c
              /etc/smartd.conf´  can be used to verify the existence of the default configuration

              By using ´-´ for FILE, the configuration is read from standard input. This is  use‐
              ful for commands like:
              echo /dev/hdb -m user@home -M test | smartd -c - -q onecheck
              to perform quick and simple checks without a configuration file.

       -C, --capabilities
              Use capabilities(7).

              Warning: Mail notification does not work when used.

       -d, --debug
              Runs smartd in "debug" mode. In this mode, it displays status information to STDOUT
              rather than logging it to SYSLOG and does  not  fork(2)  into  the  background  and
              detach  from  the controlling terminal.  In this mode, smartd also prints more ver‐
              bose information about what it is doing than when operating in  "daemon"  mode.  In
              this mode, the INT signal (normally generated from a terminal with CONTROL-C) makes
              smartd reload its configuration file.  Please use CONTROL-\ to exit

       -D, --showdirectives
              Prints a list (to STDOUT) of all the possible Directives which may  appear  in  the
              configuration   file  /etc/smartd.conf,  and  then  exits.   These  Directives  are
              described in the smartd.conf(5) man page.  They may  appear  in  the  configuration
              file following the device name.

       -h, --help, --usage
              Prints usage message to STDOUT and exits.

       -i N, --interval=N
              Sets  the  interval between disk checks to N seconds, where N is a decimal integer.
              The minimum allowed value is ten and the maximum is the  largest  positive  integer
              that  can  be  represented on your system (often 2^31-1).  The default is 1800 sec‐

              Note that the superuser can make smartd check the status of the disks at  any  time
              by sending it the SIGUSR1 signal, for example with the command:
              kill -SIGUSR1 <pid>
              where <pid> is the process id number of smartd.  One may also use:
              killall -USR1 smartd
              for the same purpose.

       -l FACILITY, --logfacility=FACILITY
              Uses  syslog  facility  FACILITY to log the messages from smartd.  Here FACILITY is
              one of local0, local1, ..., local7, or  daemon  [default].   If  this  command-line
              option is not used, then by default messages from smartd are logged to the facility

              If you would like to have smartd messages logged somewhere other than  the  default
              location,  include  (for  example) ´-l local3´ in its start up argument list.  Tell
              the syslog daemon to log  all  messages  from  facility  local3  to  (for  example)

              For  more  detailed information, please refer to the man pages for the local syslog
              daemon, typically syslogd(8), syslog-ng(8) or rsyslogd(8).

       -n, --no-fork
              Do not fork into background; this is useful when executed from modern init  methods
              like initng, minit or supervise.

       -p NAME, --pidfile=NAME
              Writes  pidfile  NAME containing the smartd Process ID number (PID).  To avoid sym‐
              link attacks make sure the directory to which pidfile is written is  only  writable
              for  root.   Without this option, or if the --debug option is given, no PID file is
              written on startup.  If smartd is killed with a maskable signal then the pidfile is

       -q WHEN, --quit=WHEN
              Specifies  when,  if  ever,  smartd  should  exit.  The valid arguments are to this
              option are:

              nodev - Exit if there are no devices to monitor, or if  any  errors  are  found  at
              startup in the configuration file.  This is the default.

              errors - Exit if there are no devices to monitor, or if any errors are found in the
              configuration file /etc/smartd.conf at startup or whenever it is reloaded.

              nodevstartup - Exit if there are no devices to monitor at startup.  But continue to
              run if no devices are found whenever the configuration file is reloaded.

              never - Only exit if a fatal error occurs (no remaining system memory, invalid com‐
              mand line arguments). In this mode, even if there are no devices to monitor, or  if
              the  configuration  file  /etc/smartd.conf has errors, smartd will continue to run,
              waiting to load a configuration file listing valid devices.

              onecheck - Start smartd in debug mode, then register devices, then  check  device´s
              SMART status once, and then exit with zero exit status if all of these steps worked

              This last option is intended for ´distribution-writers´ who want  to  create  auto‐
              mated  scripts  to  determine whether or not to automatically start up smartd after
              installing smartmontools.  After starting smartd with this command-line option, the
              distribution´s  install  scripts  should  wait a reasonable length of time (say ten
              seconds).  If smartd has not exited with zero  status  by  that  time,  the  script
              should  send  smartd  a  SIGTERM or SIGKILL and assume that smartd will not operate
              correctly on the host.  Conversely, if smartd exits with zero status,  then  it  is
              safe  to  run  smartd  in  normal  daemon  mode. If smartd is unable to monitor any
              devices or encounters other problems then it will return with non-zero exit status.

              showtests - Start smartd in debug mode, then register devices, then write a list of
              future  scheduled  self tests to stdout, and then exit with zero exit status if all
              of these steps worked correctly.  Device's SMART status is not checked.

              This option is intended to test whether the '-s REGEX'  directives  in  smartd.conf
              will  have the desired effect. The output lists the next test schedules, limited to
              5 tests per type and device. This is followed by a summary of  all  tests  of  each
              device within the next 90 days.

       -r TYPE, --report=TYPE
              Intended  primarily  to  help  smartmontools  developers understand the behavior of
              smartmontools on non-conforming or poorly-conforming hardware.  This option reports
              details  of  smartd  transactions with the device.  The option can be used multiple
              times.  When used just once, it shows a record of the ioctl() transactions with the
              device.   When  used  more  than once, the detail of these ioctl() transactions are
              reported in greater detail.  The valid arguments to this option are:

              ioctl - report all ioctl() transactions.

              ataioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with ATA devices.

              scsiioctl - report only ioctl() transactions with SCSI devices.

              Any argument may include a positive integer to specify the  level  of  detail  that
              should  be  reported.   The argument should be followed by a comma then the integer
              with no spaces.  For example, ataioctl,2 The default level is 1, so ´-r ataioctl,1´
              and ´-r ataioctl´ are equivalent.

       -s PREFIX, --savestates=PREFIX
              Reads/writes      smartd      state     information     from/to     files     ´PRE‐
              FIX´´MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state´  or  ´PREFIX´´VENDOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.state´.    This
              preserves  SMART  attributes,  drive  min and max temperatures (-W directive), info
              about last sent warning email (-m directive), and the time of  next  check  of  the
              self-test REGEXP (-s directive) across boot cycles.

              If  this  option  is  not  specified,  state  information  is  maintained  in files
              ´/var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state´   for   ATA   devices    and
              ´/var/lib/smartmontools/smartd.VENDOR-MODEL-SERIAL.scsi.state´  for  SCSI  devices.
              To disable state files, specify this option with an empty string argument: ´-s ""´.
              MODEL  and SERIAL are build from drive identify information, invalid characters are
              replaced by underline.

              If the PREFIX has the  form  ´/path/dir/´  (e.g.  ´/var/lib/smartd/´),  then  files
              ´MODEL-SERIAL.ata.state´  are  created in directory ´/path/dir´.  If the PREFIX has
              the  form  ´/path/name´  (e.g.  ´/var/lib/misc/smartd-´),   then   files   'nameMO‐
              DEL-SERIAL.ata.state'  are  created  in directory '/path/'.  The path must be abso‐
              lute, except if debug mode is enabled.

              The state information files are read  on  smartd  startup.  The  files  are  always
              (re)written  after  reading the configuration file, before rereading the configura‐
              tion file (SIGHUP), before smartd shutdown, and after a check  forced  by  SIGUSR1.
              After  a normal check cycle, a file is only rewritten if an important change (which
              usually results in a SYSLOG output) occurred.

       -w PATH, --warnexec=PATH
              [NEW EXPERIMENTAL SMARTD FEATURE] Run the executable PATH instead  of  the  default
              script  when  smartd  needs  to  send warning messages.  PATH must point to an exe‐
              cutable  binary  file  or  script.   The  default  script  is  /usr/share/smartmon‐

       -V, --version, --license, --copyright
              Prints version, copyright, license, home page and SVN revision information for your
              copy of smartd to STDOUT and then exits.  Please include this  information  if  you
              are reporting bugs or problems.

       Runs  the daemon in forked mode. This is the normal way to run smartd.  Entries are logged
       to SYSLOG.

       smartd -d -i 30
       Run in foreground (debug) mode, checking the disk status every 30 seconds.

       smartd -q onecheck
       Registers devices, and checks the status of the devices exactly once. The exit status (the
       shell $?  variable) will be zero if all went well, and nonzero if no devices were detected
       or some other problem was encountered.

       Note that smartmontools provides a start-up script in /smartd  which  is  responsible  for
       starting  and  stopping  the daemon via the normal init interface.  Using this script, you
       can start smartd by giving the command:
       /smartd start
       and stop it by using the command:
       /smartd stop

       The syntax of the smartd.conf(5) file is discussed separately.

       smartd will make log entries at loglevel LOG_INFO if the Normalized SMART Attribute values
       have changed, as reported using the ´-t´, ´-p´, or ´-u´ Directives. For example:
       ´Device: /dev/hda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 to 93´
       Note  that  in  this  message, the value given is the ´Normalized´ not the ´Raw´ Attribute
       value (the disk temperature in this case is about 22 Celsius).  The ´-R´ and  ´-r´  Direc‐
       tives  modify  this  behavior,  so  that the information is printed with the Raw values as
       well, for example:
       ´Device: /dev/hda, SMART Attribute: 194 Temperature_Celsius changed from 94 [Raw 22] to 93 [Raw 23]´
       Here the Raw values are the actual disk temperatures in Celsius.  The way in which the Raw
       values  are printed, and the names under which the Attributes are reported, is governed by
       the various ´-v Num,Description´ Directives described previously.

       Please see the smartctl manual page for further explanation  of  the  differences  between
       Normalized and Raw Attribute values.

       smartd  will  make  log  entries at loglevel LOG_CRIT if a SMART Attribute has failed, for
       ´Device: /dev/hdc, Failed SMART Attribute: 5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct´
        This loglevel is used  for  reporting  enabled  by  the  ´-H´,  -f´,  ´-l selftest´,  and
       ´-l error´ Directives. Entries reporting failure of SMART Prefailure Attributes should not
       be ignored: they mean that the disk is failing.  Use the smartctl utility to investigate.

       When smartd makes log entries, these are time-stamped.  The time stamps are  in  the  com‐
       puter's local time zone, which is generally set using either the environment variable ´TZ´
       or using a time-zone file such as /etc/localtime.  You may wish  to  change  the  timezone
       while  smartd  is running (for example, if you carry a laptop to a new time-zone and don't
       reboot it).  Due to a bug in the tzset(3) function of many unix standard C libraries,  the
       time-zone  stamps  of  smartd might not change.  For some systems, smartd will work around
       this problem if the time-zone is set using /etc/localtime. The work-around  fails  if  the
       time-zone is set using the ´TZ´ variable (or a file that it points to).

       The return value (exit status) of smartd can have the following values:

       0:     Daemon  startup  successful, or smartd was killed by a SIGTERM (or in debug mode, a

       1:     Commandline did not parse.

       2:     There was a syntax error in the config file.

       3:     Forking the daemon failed.

       4:     Couldn´t create PID file.

       5:     Config file does not exist (only returned in conjunction with the ´-c´ option).

       6:     Config file exists, but cannot be read.

       8:     smartd ran out of memory during startup.

       9:     A compile time constant of smartd was too small.  This can be caused by  an  exces‐
              sive  number  of disks, or by lines in  /etc/smartd.conf that are too long.  Please
              report this problem to  smartmontools-support AT lists.net.

       10:    An inconsistency was found in smartd´s internal data structures. This should  never
              happen.   It  must  be  due to either a coding or compiler bug.  Please report such
              failures to smartmontools-support AT lists.net.

       16:    A device explicitly listed in /etc/smartd.conf can´t be monitored.

       17:    smartd didn´t find any devices to monitor.

       254:   When in daemon mode, smartd received a SIGINT or  SIGQUIT.   (Note  that  in  debug
              mode,  SIGINT has the same effect as SIGHUP, and makes smartd reload its configura‐
              tion file. SIGQUIT has the same effect as SIGTERM and causes smartd  to  exit  with
              zero exit status.

       132 and above
              smartd was killed by a signal that is not explicitly listed above.  The exit status
              is then 128 plus the signal number.  For example if smartd  is  killed  by  SIGKILL
              (signal 9) then the exit status is 137.

              full path of this executable.

              configuration file (see smartd.conf(5) man page).

              script run on warnings (see ´-M exec´ directive on smartd.conf(5) man page).

              plugin  directory  for  smartd warning script (see ´-m´ directive on smartd.conf(5)
              man page).

              drive database (see ´-B´ option).

              optional local drive database (see ´-B´ option).

       Bruce Allen
       University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee Physics Department
       Christian Franke (Windows interface, C++ redesign, most enhancements since 2009)
       smartmontools-support AT lists.net

       The following have made large contributions to smartmontools:
       Casper Dik (Solaris SCSI interface)
       Douglas Gilbert (SCSI subsystem)
       Guido Guenther (Autoconf/Automake packaging)
       Geoffrey Keating (Darwin ATA interface)
       Eduard Martinescu (FreeBSD interface)
       Frédéric L. W. Meunier (Web site and Mailing list)
       Gabriele Pohl (Web site and Wiki, conversion from CVS to SVN)
       Keiji Sawada (Solaris ATA interface)
       Manfred Schwarb (Drive database)
       Sergey Svishchev (NetBSD interface)
       David Snyder and Sergey Svishchev (OpenBSD interface)
       Phil Williams (User interface and drive database)
       Shengfeng Zhou (Linux/FreeBSD HighPoint RocketRAID interface)
       Many other individuals have made smaller contributions and corrections.

       The first smartmontools code was derived from the smartsuite package, written  by  Michael
       Cornwell,  and from the previous UCSC smartsuite package.  This code was originally devel‐
       oped as a Senior Thesis by Michael Cornwell at the Concurrent Systems Laboratory (now part
       of  the Storage Systems Research Center), Jack Baskin School of Engineering, University of
       California, Santa Cruz. http://ssrc.soe.ucsc.edu/ .

       smartd.conf(5), smartctl(8), update-smart-drivedb(8).

       Please see the following web site for more info: http://smartmontools.sourceforge.net/

       An introductory article about smartmontools is Monitoring Hard Disks with SMART, by  Bruce
       Allen, Linux Journal, January 2004, pages 74-77. This is http://www.linuxjournal.com/arti‐
       cle/6983 online.

       If you would like to understand better how SMART works, and what it does, a good place  to
       start  is with Sections 4.8 and 6.54 of the first volume of the ´AT Attachment with Packet
       Interface-7´ (ATA/ATAPI-7) specification Revision 4b.  This documents the SMART  function‐
       ality which the smartmontools utilities provide access to.

       The  functioning  of  SMART  was  originally  defined  by the SFF-8035i revision 2 and the
       SFF-8055i revision 1.4 specifications.  These are publications of the Small  Form  Factors
       (SFF) Committee.

       Links  to  these  and  other documents may be found on the Links page of the smartmontools
       Wiki at http://www.smartmontools.org/wiki/Links .

       $Id: smartd.8.in 3965 2014-07-20 14:46:41Z chrfranke $

smartmontools-6.4                           2014-10-07                                  SMARTD(8)

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