:: RootR ::  Hosting Order Map Login   Secure Inter-Network Operations  
Class::MOP - phpMan

Command: man perldoc info search(apropos)  

Class::MOP(3pm)                User Contributed Perl Documentation                Class::MOP(3pm)

       Class::MOP - A Meta Object Protocol for Perl 5

       version 2.1213

       This module is a fully functioning meta object protocol for the Perl 5 object system. It
       makes no attempt to change the behavior or characteristics of the Perl 5 object system,
       only to create a protocol for its manipulation and introspection.

       That said, it does attempt to create the tools for building a rich set of extensions to
       the Perl 5 object system. Every attempt has been made to abide by the spirit of the Perl 5
       object system that we all know and love.

       This documentation is sparse on conceptual details. We suggest looking at the items listed
       in the "SEE ALSO" section for more information. In particular the book "The Art of the
       Meta Object Protocol" was very influential in the development of this system.

   What is a Meta Object Protocol?
       A meta object protocol is an API to an object system.

       To be more specific, it abstracts the components of an object system (classes, object,
       methods, object attributes, etc.). These abstractions can then be used to inspect and
       manipulate the object system which they describe.

       It can be said that there are two MOPs for any object system; the implicit MOP and the
       explicit MOP. The implicit MOP handles things like method dispatch or inheritance, which
       happen automatically as part of how the object system works. The explicit MOP typically
       handles the introspection/reflection features of the object system.

       All object systems have implicit MOPs. Without one, they would not work. Explicit MOPs are
       much less common, and depending on the language can vary from restrictive (Reflection in
       Java or C#) to wide open (CLOS is a perfect example).

   Yet Another Class Builder! Why?
       This is not a class builder so much as a class builder builder. The intent is that an end
       user will not use this module directly, but instead this module is used by module authors
       to build extensions and features onto the Perl 5 object system.

       This system is used by Moose, which supplies a powerful class builder system built
       entirely on top of "Class::MOP".

   Who is this module for?
       This module is for anyone who has ever created or wanted to create a module for the
       Class:: namespace. The tools which this module provides make doing complex Perl 5 wizardry
       simpler, by removing such barriers as the need to hack symbol tables, or understand the
       fine details of method dispatch.

   What changes do I have to make to use this module?
       This module was designed to be as unobtrusive as possible. Many of its features are
       accessible without any change to your existing code. It is meant to be a complement to
       your existing code and not an intrusion on your code base. Unlike many other Class::
       modules, this module does not require you subclass it, or even that you "use" it in within
       your module's package.

       The only features which require additions to your code are the attribute handling and
       instance construction features, and these are both completely optional features. The only
       reason for this is because Perl 5's object system does not actually have these features
       built in. More information about this feature can be found below.

   About Performance
       It is a common misconception that explicit MOPs are a performance hit.  This is not a
       universal truth, it is a side-effect of some specific implementations. For instance, using
       Java reflection is slow because the JVM cannot take advantage of any compiler
       optimizations, and the JVM has to deal with much more runtime type information as well.

       Reflection in C# is marginally better as it was designed into the language and runtime
       (the CLR). In contrast, CLOS (the Common Lisp Object System) was built to support an
       explicit MOP, and so performance is tuned for it.

       This library in particular does its absolute best to avoid putting any drain at all upon
       your code's performance. In fact, by itself it does nothing to affect your existing code.
       So you only pay for what you actually use.

   About Metaclass compatibility
       This module makes sure that all metaclasses created are both upwards and downwards
       compatible. The topic of metaclass compatibility is highly esoteric and is something only
       encountered when doing deep and involved metaclass hacking. There are two basic kinds of
       metaclass incompatibility; upwards and downwards.

       Upwards metaclass compatibility means that the metaclass of a given class is either the
       same as (or a subclass of) all of the metaclasses of the class's ancestors.

       Downward metaclass compatibility means that the metaclasses of a given class's ancestors
       are all the same as (or a subclass of) that class's metaclass.

       Here is a diagram showing a set of two classes ("A" and "B") and two metaclasses
       ("Meta::A" and "Meta::B") which have correct metaclass compatibility both upwards and

           +---------+     +---------+
           | Meta::A |<----| Meta::B |      <....... (instance of  )
           +---------+     +---------+      <------- (inherits from)
                ^               ^
                :               :
           +---------+     +---------+
           |    A    |<----|    B    |
           +---------+     +---------+

       In actuality, all of a class's metaclasses must be compatible, not just the class
       metaclass. That includes the instance, attribute, and method metaclasses, as well as the
       constructor and destructor classes.

       "Class::MOP" will attempt to fix some simple types of incompatibilities. If all the
       metaclasses for the parent class are subclasses of the child's metaclasses then we can
       simply replace the child's metaclasses with the parent's. In addition, if the child is
       missing a metaclass that the parent has, we can also just make the child use the parent's

       As I said this is a highly esoteric topic and one you will only run into if you do a lot
       of subclassing of Class::MOP::Class. If you are interested in why this is an issue see the
       paper Uniform and safe metaclass composition linked to in the "SEE ALSO" section of this

   Using custom metaclasses
       Always use the metaclass pragma when using a custom metaclass, this will ensure the proper
       initialization order and not accidentally create an incorrect type of metaclass for you.
       This is a very rare problem, and one which can only occur if you are doing deep metaclass
       programming. So in other words, don't worry about it.

       Note that if you're using Moose we encourage you to not use the metaclass pragma, and
       instead use Moose::Util::MetaRole to apply roles to a class's metaclasses. This topic is
       covered at length in various Moose::Cookbook recipes.

       The meta-object protocol is divided into 4 main sub-protocols:

   The Class protocol
       This provides a means of manipulating and introspecting a Perl 5 class. It handles symbol
       table hacking for you, and provides a rich set of methods that go beyond simple package

       See Class::MOP::Class for more details.

   The Attribute protocol
       This provides a consistent representation for an attribute of a Perl 5 class. Since there
       are so many ways to create and handle attributes in Perl 5 OO, the Attribute protocol
       provide as much of a unified approach as possible. Of course, you are always free to
       extend this protocol by subclassing the appropriate classes.

       See Class::MOP::Attribute for more details.

   The Method protocol
       This provides a means of manipulating and introspecting methods in the Perl 5 object
       system. As with attributes, there are many ways to approach this topic, so we try to keep
       it pretty basic, while still making it possible to extend the system in many ways.

       See Class::MOP::Method for more details.

   The Instance protocol
       This provides a layer of abstraction for creating object instances.  Since the other
       layers use this protocol, it is relatively easy to change the type of your instances from
       the default hash reference to some other type of reference. Several examples are provided
       in the examples/ directory included in this distribution.

       See Class::MOP::Instance for more details.

       Note that this module does not export any constants or functions.

   Utility functions
       Note that these are all called as functions, not methods.

           This function returns two values, the name of the package the $code is from and the
           name of the $code itself. This is used by several elements of the MOP to determine
           where a given $code reference is from.

           This will return the metaclass of the given instance or class name.  If the class
           lacks a metaclass, no metaclass will be initialized, and "undef" will be returned.

           You should almost certainly be using "Moose::Util::find_meta" instead.

   Metaclass cache functions
       "Class::MOP" holds a cache of metaclasses. The following are functions (not methods) which
       can be used to access that cache. It is not recommended that you mess with these. Bad
       things could happen, but if you are brave and willing to risk it: go for it!

           This will return a hash of all the metaclass instances that have been cached by
           Class::MOP::Class, keyed by the package name.

           This will return a list of all the metaclass instances that have been cached by

           This will return a list of all the metaclass names that have been cached by

           This will return a cached Class::MOP::Class instance, or nothing if no metaclass
           exists with that $name.

       Class::MOP::store_metaclass_by_name($name, $meta)
           This will store a metaclass in the cache at the supplied $key.

           In rare cases (e.g. anonymous metaclasses) it is desirable to store a weakened
           reference in the metaclass cache. This function will weaken the reference to the
           metaclass stored in $name.

           Returns true if the metaclass for $name has been weakened (via "weaken_metaclass").

           This will return true of there exists a metaclass stored in the $name key, and return
           false otherwise.

           This will remove the metaclass stored in the $name key.

       Some utility functions (such as "Class::MOP::load_class") that were previously defined in
       "Class::MOP" regarding loading of classes have been extracted to Class::Load. Please see
       Class::Load for documentation.

       There are very few books out on Meta Object Protocols and Metaclasses because it is such
       an esoteric topic. The following books are really the only ones I have found. If you know
       of any more, please email me and let me know, I would love to hear about them.

       The Art of the Meta Object Protocol
       Advances in Object-Oriented Metalevel Architecture and Reflection
       Putting MetaClasses to Work
       Smalltalk: The Language

       "Uniform and safe metaclass composition"
           An excellent paper by the people who brought us the original Traits paper.  This paper
           is on how Traits can be used to do safe metaclass composition, and offers an excellent
           introduction section which delves into the topic of metaclass compatibility.


       "Safe Metaclass Programming"
           This paper seems to precede the above paper, and propose a mix-in based approach as
           opposed to the Traits based approach. Both papers have similar information on the
           metaclass compatibility problem space.


   Prior Art
       The Perl 6 MetaModel work in the Pugs project

       CPAN Module Review of Class::MOP

       As I have said above, this module is a class-builder-builder, so it is not the same thing
       as modules like Class::Accessor and Class::MethodMaker. That being said there are very few
       modules on CPAN with similar goals to this module. The one I have found which is most like
       this module is Class::Meta, although its philosophy and the MOP it creates are very
       different from this modules.

       All complex software has bugs lurking in it, and this module is no exception.

       Please report any bugs to "bug-class-mop AT rt.org", or through the web interface at

       You can also discuss feature requests or possible bugs on the Moose mailing list
       (moose AT perl.org) or on IRC at <irc://irc.perl.org/#moose>.

       Rob Kinyon
           Thanks to Rob for actually getting the development of this module kick-started.

       ·   Stevan Little <stevan.little AT iinteractive.com>

       ·   Dave Rolsky <autarch AT urth.org>

       ·   Jesse Luehrs <doy AT tozt.net>

       ·   Shawn M Moore <code AT sartak.org>

       ·   XXXX XXX'XX (Yuval Kogman) <nothingmuch AT woobling.org>

       ·   Karen Etheridge <ether AT cpan.org>

       ·   Florian Ragwitz <rafl AT debian.org>

       ·   Hans Dieter Pearcey <hdp AT weftsoar.net>

       ·   Chris Prather <chris AT prather.org>

       ·   Matt S Trout <mst AT shadowcat.uk>

       This software is copyright (c) 2006 by Infinity Interactive, Inc..

       This is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as
       the Perl 5 programming language system itself.

perl v5.20.1                                2014-09-25                            Class::MOP(3pm)

rootr.net - man pages