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EMACS(1)                             General Commands Manual                             EMACS(1)

       emacs - GNU project Emacs

       emacs [ command-line switches ] [ files ... ]

       GNU  Emacs  is  a  version of Emacs, written by the author of the original (PDP-10) Emacs,
       Richard Stallman.  The user functionality of GNU Emacs encompasses everything  other  edi‐
       tors do, and it is easily extensible since its editing commands are written in Lisp.

       The  primary  documentation  of  GNU  Emacs is in the GNU Emacs Manual, which you can read
       using Info, either from Emacs or as a standalone program.  Please look there for  complete
       and up-to-date documentation.  This man page is updated only when someone volunteers to do

       Emacs has an extensive interactive help facility, but the facility assumes that  you  know
       how to manipulate Emacs windows and buffers.  CTRL-h or F1 enters the Help facility.  Help
       Tutorial (CTRL-h t) starts an interactive tutorial to quickly teach beginners  the  funda‐
       mentals of Emacs.  Help Apropos (CTRL-h a) helps you find a command with a name matching a
       given pattern, Help Key (CTRL-h k) describes a  given  key  sequence,  and  Help  Function
       (CTRL-h f) describes a given Lisp function.

       GNU  Emacs's many special packages handle mail reading (RMail) and sending (Mail), outline
       editing (Outline), compiling (Compile), running subshells within  Emacs  windows  (Shell),
       running a Lisp read-eval-print loop (Lisp-Interaction-Mode), automated psychotherapy (Doc‐
       tor), and much more.

   Emacs Options
       The following options are of general interest:

              file    Edit file.

              --file file, --find-file file, --visit file
                      The same as specifying file directly as an argument.

              +number Go to the line specified by number (do not insert a space between  the  "+"
                      sign and the number).  This applies only to the next file specified.

                      Go to the specified line and column.

              --chdir directory
                      Change to directory.

              -q, --no-init-file
                      Do not load an init file.

              -nl, --no-shared-memory
                      Do not use shared memory.

                      Do not load the site-wide startup file.

              -nsl, --no-site-lisp
                      Do not add site-lisp directories to load-path.

                      Do not load a saved desktop.

              -Q, --quick
                      Similar  to  "-q  --no-site-file  --no-splash".   Also,  avoid processing X

                      Do not display a splash screen during start-up.

                      Enable Emacs Lisp debugger during the processing  of  the  user  init  file
                      ~/.emacs.  This is useful for debugging problems in the init file.

              -u user, --user user
                      Load user's init file.

              -t file, --terminal file
                      Use  specified  file  as  the terminal instead of using stdin/stdout.  This
                      must be the first argument specified in the command line.

                      Start Emacs as a daemon, enabling the Emacs server and  disconnecting  from
                      the  terminal.   You can then use the emacsclient command to connect to the
                      server (see emacsclient(1)).

                      Display Emacs version information and exit.

              --help  Display this help and exit.

       The following options are Lisp-oriented (these options are processed in the order  encoun‐

              -f function, --funcall function
                      Execute the lisp function function.

              -l file, --load file
                      Load the lisp code in the file file.

              --eval expr, --execute expr
                      Evaluate the Lisp expression expr.

       The following options are useful when running Emacs as a batch editor:

              --batch Edit in batch mode.  The editor will send messages to stderr.  You must use
                      -l and -f options to specify files to execute and functions to call.

              --script file
                      Run file as an Emacs Lisp script.

              --insert file
                      Insert contents of file into the current buffer.

              --kill  Exit Emacs while in batch mode.

              -L dir, --directory dir
                      Add dir to the list of directories Emacs searches for Lisp files.

   Using Emacs with X
       Emacs has been tailored to work well with the X window system.   If  you  run  Emacs  from
       under X windows, it will create its own X window to display in.  You will probably want to
       start the editor as a background process so that you can continue using your original win‐

       Emacs can be started with the following X switches:

              --name name
                      Specify  the  name  which  should  be assigned to the initial Emacs window.
                      This controls looking up X resources as well as the window title.

              -T name, --title name
                      Specify the title for the initial X window.

              -r, -rv, --reverse-video
                      Display the Emacs window in reverse video.

              -fn font, --font font
                      Set the Emacs window's font to that specified by font.  You will  find  the
                      various  X fonts in the /usr/lib/X11/fonts directory.  Note that Emacs will
                      only accept fixed width fonts.  Under the X11 Release 4 font-naming conven‐
                      tions, any font with the value "m" or "c" in the eleventh field of the font
                      name is a fixed width font.  Furthermore, fonts whose name are of the  form
                      widthxheight  are  generally  fixed  width, as is the font fixed.  See xls‐
                      fonts(1) for more information.

                      When you specify a font, be sure to put a space between the switch and  the
                      font name.

              --xrm resources
                      Set additional X resources.

              --color, --color=mode
                      Override  color  mode for character terminals; mode defaults to `auto', and
                      can also be `never', `auto', `always', or a mode name like `ansi8'.

              -bw pixels, --border-width pixels
                      Set the Emacs window's border width to the number of  pixels  specified  by
                      pixels.  Defaults to one pixel on each side of the window.

              -ib pixels, --internal-border pixels
                      Set the window's internal border width to the number of pixels specified by
                      pixels.  Defaults to one pixel of padding on each side of the window.

              -g geometry, --geometry geometry
                      Set the Emacs window's width, height, and position as specified.  The geom‐
                      etry  specification is in the standard X format; see X(7) for more informa‐
                      tion.  The width and height are specified in characters; the default is  80
                      by  24.   See  the Emacs manual, section "Options for Window Size and Posi‐
                      tion", for information on how window sizes interact with selecting or dese‐
                      lecting the tool bar and menu bar.

              -lsp pixels, --line-spacing pixels
                      Additional space to put between lines.

              -vb, --vertical-scroll-bars
                      Enable vertical scrollbars.

              -fh, --fullheight
                      Make the first frame as high as the screen.

              -fs, --fullscreen
                      Make the first frame fullscreen.

              -fw, --fullwidth
                      Make the first frame as wide as the screen.

              -mm, --maximized
                      Maximize the first frame, like "-fw -fh".

              -fg color, --foreground-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the text.

                      Use the command M-x list-colors-display for a list of valid color names.

              -bg color, --background-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's background.

              -bd color, --border-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's border.

              -cr color, --cursor-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's text cursor.

              -ms color, --mouse-color color
                      On color displays, set the color of the window's mouse cursor.

              -d displayname, --display displayname
                      Create  the  Emacs window on the display specified by displayname.  Must be
                      the first option specified in the command line.

              -nbi, --no-bitmap-icon
                      Do not use picture of gnu for Emacs icon.

                      Start Emacs in iconified state.

              -nbc, --no-blinking-cursor
                      Disable blinking cursor.

              --parent-id xid
                      Set parent window.

              -nw, --no-window-system
                      Tell Emacs not to create a graphical frame.  If you use  this  switch  when
                      invoking Emacs from an xterm(1) window, display is done in that window.

              -D, --basic-display
                      This option disables many display features; use it for debugging Emacs.

       You  can  set  X  default  values  for  your  Emacs  windows in your .Xresources file (see
       xrdb(1)).  Use the following format:


       where value specifies the default value of keyword.  Emacs lets you set default values for
       the following keywords:

              background (class Background)
                      For color displays, sets the window's background color.

              bitmapIcon (class BitmapIcon)
                      If  bitmapIcon's  value  is  set  to  on,  the window will iconify into the
                      "kitchen sink."

              borderColor (class BorderColor)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's border.

              borderWidth (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's border width in pixels.

              cursorColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's text cursor.

              cursorBlink (class CursorBlink)
                      Specifies whether to make the cursor blink.  The default is on.  Use off or
                      false to turn cursor blinking off.

              font (class Font)
                      Sets the window's text font.

              foreground (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the window's text color.

              fullscreen (class Fullscreen)
                      The  desired fullscreen size.  The value can be one of fullboth, maximized,
                      fullwidth, or fullheight, which  correspond  to  the  command-line  options
                      `-fs',  `-mm',  `-fw',  and `-fh', respectively.  Note that this applies to
                      the initial frame only.

              geometry (class Geometry)
                      Sets the geometry of the Emacs window (as described above).

              iconName (class Title)
                      Sets the icon name for the Emacs window icon.

              internalBorder (class BorderWidth)
                      Sets the window's internal border width in pixels.

              lineSpacing (class LineSpacing)
                      Additional space ("leading") between lines, in pixels.

              menuBar (class MenuBar)
                      Gives frames menu bars if on; don't have menu bars if off.  See  the  Emacs
                      manual,  sections  "Lucid Resources" and "Motif Resources", for how to con‐
                      trol the appearance of the menu bar if you have one.

              minibuffer (class Minibuffer)
                      If none, don't make a minibuffer in this frame.  It  will  use  a  separate
                      minibuffer frame instead.

              paneFont (class Font)
                      Font name for menu pane titles, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.

              pointerColor (class Foreground)
                      For color displays, sets the color of the window's mouse cursor.

              privateColormap (class PrivateColormap)
                      If  on,  use a private color map, in the case where the "default visual" of
                      class PseudoColor and Emacs is using it.

              reverseVideo (class ReverseVideo)
                      If reverseVideo's value is set to on,  the  window  will  be  displayed  in
                      reverse video.

              screenGamma (class ScreenGamma)
                      Gamma   correction   for   colors,   equivalent   to  the  frame  parameter

              scrollBarWidth (class ScrollBarWidth)
                      The  scroll  bar  width  in  pixels,  equivalent  to  the  frame  parameter

              selectionFont (class SelectionFont)
                      Font  name  for  pop-up menu items, in non-toolkit versions of Emacs.  (For
                      toolkit versions, see the Emacs  manual,  sections  "Lucid  Resources"  and
                      "Motif Resources".)

              selectionTimeout (class SelectionTimeout)
                      Number  of  milliseconds to wait for a selection reply.  A value of 0 means
                      wait as long as necessary.

              synchronous (class Synchronous)
                      Run Emacs in synchronous mode if on.  Synchronous mode is useful for debug‐
                      ging X problems.

              title (class Title)
                      Sets the title of the Emacs window.

              toolBar (class ToolBar)
                      Number of lines to reserve for the tool bar.

              useXIM (class UseXIM)
                      Turns off use of X input methods (XIM) if false or off.

              verticalScrollBars (class ScrollBars)
                      Gives frames scroll bars if on; suppresses scroll bars if off.

              visualClass (class VisualClass)
                      Specify the "visual" that X should use.  This tells X how to handle colors.
                      The value should start with one  of  TrueColor,  PseudoColor,  DirectColor,
                      StaticColor,  GrayScale, and StaticGray, followed by -depth, where depth is
                      the number of color planes.

       You can order printed copies of the GNU Emacs Manual from the  Free  Software  Foundation,
       which develops GNU software.  See the online store at <http://shop.fsf.org/>.
       Your  local administrator might also have copies available.  As with all software and pub‐
       lications from FSF, everyone is permitted to make and distribute copies of the Emacs  man‐
       ual.  The Texinfo source to the manual is also included in the Emacs source distribution.

       /usr/local/share/info  —  files  for the Info documentation browser.  The complete text of
       the Emacs reference manual is  included  in  a  convenient  tree  structured  form.   Also
       includes  the  Emacs  Lisp Reference Manual, useful to anyone wishing to write programs in
       the Emacs Lisp extension language, and the Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/lisp — Lisp source files and compiled  files  that  define
       most editing commands.  Some are preloaded; others are autoloaded from this directory when

       /usr/local/libexec/emacs/$VERSION/$ARCH — various programs that are used with GNU Emacs.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc — various files of information.

       /usr/local/share/emacs/$VERSION/etc/DOC.* — contains the  documentation  strings  for  the
       Lisp primitives and preloaded Lisp functions of GNU Emacs.  They are stored here to reduce
       the size of Emacs proper.

       There is a mailing list, bug-gnu-emacs AT gnu.org, for reporting Emacs bugs and  fixes.   But
       before  reporting something as a bug, please try to be sure that it really is a bug, not a
       misunderstanding or a deliberate feature.  We ask you  to  read  the  section  ``Reporting
       Bugs''  in  the  Emacs manual for hints on how and when to report bugs.  Also, include the
       version number of the Emacs you are running in every bug report that you  send  in.   Bugs
       tend  actually  to  be  fixed if they can be isolated, so it is in your interest to report
       them in such a way that they can be easily reproduced.

       Do not expect a personal answer to a bug report.  The purpose of reporting bugs is to  get
       them  fixed  for everyone in the next release, if possible.  For personal assistance, con‐
       sult the service directory at <http://www.fsf.org/resources/service/> for a list of people
       who offer it.

       Please  do not send anything but bug reports to this mailing list.  For other Emacs lists,
       see <http://savannah.gnu.org/mail/?group=emacs>.

       Emacs is free; anyone may redistribute copies of Emacs to anyone under the terms stated in
       the  GNU  General Public License, a copy of which accompanies each copy of Emacs and which
       also appears in the reference manual.

       Copies of Emacs may sometimes be received packaged with distributions of Unix systems, but
       it  is  never included in the scope of any license covering those systems.  Such inclusion
       violates the terms on which distribution is permitted.  In fact, the  primary  purpose  of
       the GNU General Public License is to prohibit anyone from attaching any other restrictions
       to redistribution of Emacs.

       Richard Stallman encourages you to improve and extend Emacs, and urges that you contribute
       your  extensions  to  the GNU library.  Eventually GNU (Gnu's Not Unix) will be a complete
       replacement for Unix.  Everyone will be free to use, copy, study and change the  GNU  sys‐

       emacsclient(1), etags(1), X(7), xlsfonts(1), xterm(1), xrdb(1)

       Emacs  was  written  by  Richard  Stallman and the Free Software Foundation.  For detailed
       credits and acknowledgments, see the GNU Emacs manual.

       Copyright (C) 1995, 1999-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.

       Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this document provided the
       copyright notice and this permission notice are preserved on all copies.

       Permission  is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this document under the
       conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the entire resulting derived work  is  dis‐
       tributed under the terms of a permission notice identical to this one.

       Permission  is  granted  to copy and distribute translations of this document into another
       language, under the above conditions for modified versions, except  that  this  permission
       notice may be stated in a translation approved by the Free Software Foundation.

GNU Emacs 24.4                            2007 April 13                                  EMACS(1)

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