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ISPELL(1) - phpMan

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ISPELL(1)                            General Commands Manual                            ISPELL(1)

       ispell,  buildhash, munchlist, findaffix, tryaffix, icombine, ijoin - Interactive spelling

       ispell [common-flags] [-M|-N] [-Lcontext] [-V] files
       ispell [common-flags] -l
       ispell [common-flags] [-f file] [-s] [-a|-A]
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -c
       ispell [-d file] [-w chars] -e[e]
       ispell [-d file] -D
       ispell -v[v]

              [-t] [-n] [-H] [-o] [-b] [-x] [-B] [-C] [-P] [-m] [-S]  [-d  file]  [-p  file]  [-w
              chars] [-W n] [-T type] [-kname list] [-F program]

       buildhash [-s] dict-file affix-file hash-file
       buildhash -s count affix-file

       munchlist [-l aff-file] [-c conv-file] [-T suffix]
                 [-s hash-file] [-D] [-v] [-w chars] [files]

       findaffix [-p|-s] [-f] [-c] [-m min] [-M max] [-e elim]
                 [-t tabchar] [-l low] [files]

       tryaffix [-p|-s] [-c] expanded-file affix [+addition]

       icombine [-T type] [-w chars] [aff-file]

       ijoin [-s|-u] join-options file1 file2

       Ispell  is  fashioned  after the spell program from ITS (called ispell on Twenex systems.)
       The most common usage is "ispell filename".  In this case, ispell will display  each  word
       which  does  not appear in the dictionary at the top of the screen and allow you to change
       it.  If there are "near misses" in the dictionary (words which differ  by  only  a  single
       letter,  a  missing  or  extra letter, a pair of transposed letters, or a missing space or
       hyphen), then they are also displayed on following  lines.   As  well  as  "near  misses",
       ispell  may  display  other  guesses at ways to make the word from a known root, with each
       guess preceded by question marks.  Finally, the line containing the word and the  previous
       line  are  printed  at  the bottom of the screen.  If your terminal can display in reverse
       video, the word itself is highlighted.  You have the option of  replacing  the  word  com‐
       pletely,  or  choosing one of the suggested words.  Commands are single characters as fol‐
       lows (case is ignored):

              R      Replace the misspelled word completely.

              Space  Accept the word this time only.

              A      Accept the word for the rest of this ispell session.

              I      Accept the word, capitalized as it is in the file, and update  private  dic‐

              U      Accept the word, and add an uncapitalized (actually, all lower-case) version
                     to the private dictionary.

              0-n    Replace with one of the suggested words.

              L      Look up words in system dictionary  (controlled  by  the  WORDS  compilation

              X      Write the rest of this file, ignoring misspellings, and start next file.

              Q      Exit immediately and leave the file unchanged.

              !      Shell escape.

              ^L     Redraw screen.

              ^Z     Suspend ispell.

              ?      Give help screen.

       If  the -M switch is specified, a one-line mini-menu at the bottom of the screen will sum‐
       marize these options.  Conversely, the -N switch may be used to  suppress  the  mini-menu.
       (The minimenu is displayed by default if ispell was compiled with the MINIMENU option, but
       these two switches will always override the default).

       If the -L flag is given, the specified number is used as the number of lines of context to
       be shown at the bottom of the screen (The default is to calculate the amount of context as
       a certain percentage of the screen size).  The amount of context is subject to  a  system-
       imposed limit.

       If the -V flag is given, characters that are not in the 7-bit ANSI printable character set
       will always be displayed in the style of "cat -v", even if ispell thinks that these  char‐
       acters  are legal ISO Latin-1 on your system.  This is useful when working with older ter‐
       minals.  Without this switch, ispell will display 8-bit characters "as is"  if  they  have
       been defined as string characters for the chosen file type.

       "Normal" mode, as well as the -l, -a, and -A options and interactive mode (see below) also
       accepts the following "common" flags on the command line:

              -t     The input file is in TeX or LaTeX format.

              -n     The input file is in nroff/troff format.

              -H     The input file is in SGML/HTML format.  (This should really be -s,  but  for
                     historical reasons that flag was already taken.)

              -o     The  input  file should be treated as ordinary text.  (This could be used to
                     override DEFTEXFLAG.)

              -g     The input file is in Debian control file format.  Ispell will ignore  every‐
                     thing outside the Description(s).

              -b     Create a backup file by appending ".bak" to the name of the input file.

              -x     Delete the backup file after spell-checking is finished.

              -B     Report run-together words with missing blanks as spelling errors.

              -C     Consider run-together words as legal compounds.

              -P     Don't generate extra root/affix combinations.

              -m     Make possible root/affix combinations that aren't in the dictionary.

              -S     Sort the list of guesses by probable correctness.

              -d file
                     Specify an alternate dictionary file.  For example, use -d british to choose
                     /usr/lib/ispell/british.{aff|hash} instead of your  default  ispell  dictio‐

              -p file
                     Specify an alternate personal dictionary.

              -w chars
                     Specify additional characters that can be part of a word.

              -W n   Specify length of words that are always legal.

              -T type
                     Assume a given formatter type for all files.

       The  -H, -n, -t, and -o options select whether ispell runs in HTML (-H), nroff/troff (-n),
       TeX/LaTeX (-t), or ordinary text (-o) input mode.  mode.  (The default mode is  controlled
       by  the  DEFTEXFLAG  installation  option, but is normally nroff/troff mode for historical
       reasons.)  Unless overridden by one of the  mode-selection  switches,  TeX/LaTeX  mode  is
       automatically  selected  if an input file has the extension ".tex", and HTML mode is auto‐
       matically selected if an input file has the extension ".html" or ".htm".

       In HTML mode, HTML tags delimited by <> signs are skipped, except  that  the  "ALT="  con‐
       struct  is  recognized  if  it appears with no spaces around the equals sign, and the text
       inside is spell-checked.

       In TeX/LaTeX mode, whenever a backslash ("\") is found,  ispell  will  skip  to  the  next
       whitespace or TeX/LaTeX delimiter.  Certain commands contain arguments which should not be
       checked, such as labels and reference keys as are found in the \cite command,  since  they
       contain  arbitrary,  non-word  arguments.   Spell checking is also suppressed when in math
       mode.  Thus, for example, given

              \chapter {This is a Ckapter} \cite{SCH86}

       ispell will find "Ckapter" but not "SCH".  The -t option does not recognize the  TeX  com‐
       ment  character  "%",  so  comments are also spell-checked.  It also assumes correct LaTeX
       syntax.  Arguments to infrequently used commands and some optional arguments are sometimes
       checked  unnecessarily.   The bibliography will not be checked if ispell was compiled with
       IGNOREBIB defined.  Otherwise, the bibliography will be checked but the reference key will

       References  for  the tib (if available on your system), bibliography system, that is, text
       between a ``[.'' or ``<.'' and ``.]'' or ``.>'' will always be ignored in TeX/LaTeX mode.

       The -b and -x options control whether ispell leaves a backup (.bak) file  for  each  input
       file.  The .bak file contains the pre-corrected text.  If there are file opening / writing
       errors, the .bak file may be left for recovery purposes even  with  the  -x  option.   The
       default for this option is controlled by the DEFNOBACKUPFLAG installation option.

       The  -B and -C options control how ispell handles run-together words, such as "notthe" for
       "not the".  If -B is specified, such words will be considered as errors, and  ispell  will
       list variations with an inserted blank or hyphen as possible replacements.  If -C is spec‐
       ified, run-together words will be considered to be legal compounds, so long as both compo‐
       nents  are  in the dictionary, and each component is at least as long as a language-depen‐
       dent minimum (3 characters, by default).  This is useful for languages such as German  and
       Norwegian,  where  many  compound words are formed by concatenation.  (Note that compounds
       formed from three or more root words will still be considered errors).   The  default  for
       this  option  is  language-dependent; in a multi-lingual installation the default may vary
       depending on which dictionary you choose.

       The -P and -m options control when ispell  automatically  generates  suggested  root/affix
       combinations for possible addition to your personal dictionary.  (These are the entries in
       the "guess" list which are preceded by question marks.)  If -P is specified, such  guesses
       are displayed only if ispell cannot generate any possibilities that match the current dic‐
       tionary.  If -m is specified, such guesses are always displayed.  This can  be  useful  if
       the  dictionary  has  a limited word list, or a word list with few suffixes.  However, you
       should be careful when using this option, as it can generate guesses that produce  illegal
       words.  The default for this option is controlled by the dictionary file used.

       The -S option suppresses ispell's normal behavior of sorting the list of possible replace‐
       ment words.  Some people may prefer this, since it somewhat enhances the probability  that
       the correct word will be low-numbered.

       The  -d  option  is  used  to  specify an alternate hashed dictionary file, other than the
       default.  If the filename does not contain a "/", the library directory  for  the  default
       dictionary  file  is  prefixed;  thus,  to  use  a  dictionary  in the local directory "-d
       ./xxx.hash" must be used.  This is useful to allow dictionaries for  alternate  languages.
       Unlike previous versions of ispell, a dictionary of /dev/null is illegal, because the dic‐
       tionary contains the affix table.  If you need an effectively empty dictionary,  create  a
       one-entry list with an unlikely string (e.g., "qqqqq").

       The  -p option is used to specify an alternate personal dictionary file.  If the file name
       does not begin with "/", $HOME is prefixed.  Also, the shell variable WORDLIST may be set,
       which  renames the personal dictionary in the same manner.  The command line overrides any
       WORDLIST setting.  If neither the -p switch  nor  the  WORDLIST  environment  variable  is
       given,  ispell  will  search  for  a personal dictionary in both the current directory and
       $HOME, creating one in $HOME if none is found.   The  preferred  name  is  constructed  by
       appending  ".ispell_" to the base name of the hash file.  For example, if you use the Eng‐
       lish dictionary, your personal dictionary would be named ".ispell_english".   However,  if
       the  file ".ispell_words" exists, it will be used as the personal dictionary regardless of
       the language hash file chosen.  This feature is included primarily for backwards  compati‐

       If  the -p option is not specified, ispell will look for personal dictionaries in both the
       current directory and the home directory.  If dictionaries exist in both places, they will
       be merged.  If any words are added to the personal dictionary, they will be written to the
       current directory if a dictionary already existed in that place; otherwise  they  will  be
       written to the dictionary in the home directory.

       The  -w  option  may  be  used to specify characters other than alphabetics which may also
       appear in words.  For instance, -w "&" will allow "AT&T" to be picked up.  Underscores are
       useful in many technical documents.  There is an admittedly crude provision in this option
       for 8-bit international characters.  Non-printing characters may be specified in the usual
       way by inserting a backslash followed by the octal character code; e.g., "\014" for a form
       feed.  Alternatively, if "n" appears in the character string, the (up to) three characters
       following  are  a  DECIMAL code 0 - 255, for the character.  For example, to include bells
       and form feeds in your words (an admittedly silly thing to do, but aren't most pedagogical


       Numeric  digits  other than the three following "n" are simply numeric characters.  Use of
       "n" does not conflict with anything because actual alphabetics have no meaning - alphabet‐
       ics  are  already accepted.  Ispell will typically be used with input from a file, meaning
       that preserving parity for possible 8 bit characters from the input text is  OK.   If  you
       specify  the -l option, and actually type text from the terminal, this may create problems
       if your stty settings preserve parity.

       It is not possible to use -w with certain  characters.   In  particular,  the  flag-marker
       character  for the language (defined in the affix file, but usually "/") can never be made
       into a word character.

       The -W option may be used to change the length of words  that  ispell  always  accepts  as
       legal.   Normally,  ispell will accept all 1-character words as legal, which is equivalent
       to specifying "-W 1."  (The default for this switch is actually controlled by the  MINWORD
       installation  option,  so  it may vary at your installation.)  If you want all words to be
       checked against the dictionary, regardless of length, you might want to  specify  "-W  0."
       On  the  other  hand, if your document specifies a lot of three-letter acronyms, you would
       specify "-W 3" to accept all words of three letters or less.  Regardless of the setting of
       this  option,  ispell  will  only  generate  words that are in the dictionary as suggested
       replacements for words; this prevents the list from becoming too  long.   Obviously,  this
       option  can  be  very  dangerous, since short misspellings may be missed.  If you use this
       option a lot, you should probably make a last pass without it before you publish your doc‐
       ument, to protect yourself against errors.

       The  -T  option  is  used to specify a default formatter type for use in generating string
       characters.  This switch overrides the default type determined from the  file  name.   The
       type  argument  may  be  either one of the unique names defined in the language affix file
       (e.g., nroff) or a file suffix including the dot (e.g., .tex).  If no  -T  option  appears
       and  no  type  can  be  determined  from  the file name, the default string character type
       declared in the language affix file will be used.

       The -k option is used to enhance the behavior of certain deformatters.  The name parameter
       gives  the  name  of a deformatter keyword set (see below), and the list parameter gives a
       list of one or more keywords that are to be treated specially.  If list begins with a plus
       (+) sign, it is added to the existing keywords; otherwise it replaces the existing keyword
       list.  For example, -ktexskip1 +bibliographystyle  adds  "bibliographystyle"  to  the  TeX
       skip-1  list,  while  -khtmlignore pre,strong replaces the HTML ignore list with "pre" and
       "strong".  The lists available are:

              TeX/LaTeX commands that take a single argument that should  not  be  spell-checked,
              such  as  "bibliographystyle".   The  default is "end", "vspace", "hspace", "cite",
              "ref", "parbox",  "label",  "input",  "nocite",  "include",  "includeonly",  "docu‐
              mentstyle", "documentclass", "usepackage", "selectlanguage", "pagestyle", "pagenum‐
              bering", "hyphenation", "pageref", and "psfig", plus "bibliography" in some instal‐
              lations.  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              TeX/LaTeX  commands  that take two arguments that should not be spell-checked, such
              as "setlength".  The default is "rule", "setcounter", "addtocounter",  "setlength",
              "addtolength", and "settowidth".  These keywords are case-sensitive.

              HTML tags that delimit text that should not be spell-checked until the matching end
              tag is reached.  The default  is  "code",  "samp",  "kbd",  "pre",  "listing",  and
              "address".   These  keywords  are  case-insensitive.  (Note that the content inside
              HTML tags, such as HREF=, is not normally checked.)

              Subfields that should be spell-checked even  inside  HTML  tags.   The  default  is
              "alt",  so that the ALT= portion of IMG tags will be spell-checked.  These keywords
              are case-insensitive.

       All of the above keyword lists can also be modified by environment variables  whose  names
       are  the  same as above, except in uppercase, e.g., TEXSKIP1.  The -k switch overrides (or
       adds to) the environment variables, and the environment variables override or add  to  the
       built-in defaults.

       The  -F  switch  specifies an external deformatter program.  This program should read data
       from its standard input and write to  its  standard  output.   The  program  must  produce
       exactly  one character of output for each character of input, or ispell will lose synchro‐
       nization and corrupt the output file.  Whitespace characters (especially blanks, tabs, and
       newlines)  and characters that should be spell-checked should be passed through unchanged.
       Characters that should not be spell-checked should be converted into blanks or other  non-
       word  characters.   For example, an HTML deformatter might turn all HTML tags into blanks,
       and also blank out all text delimited by tags such as "code" or "kbd".

       The -F switch is the preferred way to deformat  files  for  ispell,  and  eventually  will
       become the only way.

       If ispell is invoked without any filenames or mode switches, it enters an interactive mode
       designed to let the user check the spelling of individual words.  The  program  repeatedly
       prompts  on standard output with "word:" and responds with either "ok" (possibly with com‐
       mentary), "not found", or "how about" followed by a list of suggestions.

       The -l or "list" option to ispell is used to produce a list of misspelled words  from  the
       standard input.

       The  -a  option  is intended to be used from other programs through a pipe.  In this mode,
       ispell prints a one-line version identification message, and then begins reading lines  of
       input.  For each input line, a single line is written to the standard output for each word
       checked for spelling on the line.  If the word was found in the main dictionary,  or  your
       personal  dictionary,  then  the  line contains only a '*'.  If the word was found through
       affix removal, then the line contains a '+', a space, and the root word.  If the word  was
       found  through  compound  formation  (concatenation  of  two  words,  controlled by the -C
       option), then the line contains only a '-'.

       If the word is not in the dictionary, but there are near misses, then the line contains an
       '&', a space, the misspelled word, a space, the number of near misses, the number of char‐
       acters between the beginning of the line and the  beginning  of  the  misspelled  word,  a
       colon,  another space, and a list of the near misses separated by commas and spaces.  Fol‐
       lowing the near misses (and identified only by the count of  near  misses),  if  the  word
       could  be  formed  by  adding  (illegal)  affixes  to a known root, is a list of suggested
       derivations, again separated by commas and spaces.  If there are no near  misses  at  all,
       the  line  format  is  the same, except that the '&' is replaced by '?' (and the near-miss
       count is always zero).  The suggested derivations following the near  misses  are  in  the

              [prefix+] root [-prefix] [-suffix] [+suffix]

       (e.g.,  "re+fry-y+ies"  to  get  "refries")  where  each optional pfx and sfx is a string.
       Also, each near miss or guess is capitalized the same as the input word unless such  capi‐
       talization  is illegal; in the latter case each near miss is capitalized correctly accord‐
       ing to the dictionary.

       Finally, if the word does not appear in the dictionary, and there are no near misses, then
       the  line  contains a '#', a space, the misspelled word, a space, and the character offset
       from the beginning of the line.  Each sentence of text input is terminated with  an  addi‐
       tional blank line, indicating that ispell has completed processing the input line.

       These output lines can be summarized as follows:

              OK:    *

              Root:  + <root>


              Miss:  & <original> <count> <offset>: <miss>, <miss>, ..., <guess>, ...

              Guess: ? <original> 0 <offset>: <guess>, <guess>, ...

              None:  # <original> <offset>

       For  example, a dummy dictionary containing the words "fray", "Frey", "fry", and "refried"
       might produce the following response to the command "echo 'frqy refries | ispell -a -m  -d
              (#) International Ispell Version 3.0.05 (beta), 08/10/91
              & frqy 3 0: fray, Frey, fry
              & refries 1 5: refried, re+fry-y+ies

       This mode is also suitable for interactive use when you want to figure out the spelling of
       a single word.

       The -A option works  just  like  -a,  except  that  if  a  line  begins  with  the  string
       "&Include_File&",  the rest of the line is taken as the name of a file to read for further
       words.  Input returns to the original file when the include file is exhausted.   Inclusion
       may  be  nested up to five deep.  The key string may be changed with the environment vari‐
       able INCLUDE_STRING (the ampersands, if any, must be included).

       When in the -a mode, ispell will also accept lines of single words prefixed  with  any  of
       '*',  '&', '@', '+', '-', '~', '#', '!', '%', '`', or '^'.  A line starting with '*' tells
       ispell to insert the word into the user's dictionary (similar to the I command).   A  line
       starting  with  '&'  tells  ispell to insert an all-lowercase version of the word into the
       user's dictionary (similar to the U command).  A line starting with '@' causes  ispell  to
       accept this word in the future (similar to the A command).  A line starting with '+', fol‐
       lowed immediately by tex or nroff will cause ispell to parse future  input  according  the
       syntax  of  that  formatter.   A  line  consisting  solely  of  a '+' will place ispell in
       TeX/LaTeX mode (similar to the -t option) and '-' returns ispell to nroff/troff mode  (but
       these  commands are obsolete).  However, the string character type is not changed; the '~'
       command must be used to do this.  A line starting with '~' causes ispell to  set  internal
       parameters  (in particular, the default string character type) based on the filename given
       in the rest of the line.  (A file suffix is sufficient, but the period must  be  included.
       Instead of a file name or suffix, a unique name, as listed in the language affix file, may
       be specified.)  However, the formatter parsing is not changed;  the '+'  command  must  be
       used to change the formatter.  A line prefixed with '#' will cause the personal dictionary
       to be saved.  A line prefixed with '!' will turn on terse mode (see  below),  and  a  line
       prefixed with '%' will return ispell to normal (non-terse) mode.  A line prefixed with '`'
       will turn on verbose-correction mode (see below); this mode can only be disabled by  turn‐
       ing on terse mode with '%'.

       Any  input  following the prefix characters '+', '-', '#', '!', '%', or '`' is ignored, as
       is any input following the filename on a '~'  line.   To  allow  spell-checking  of  lines
       beginning  with  these  characters,  a  line  starting with '^' has that character removed
       before it is passed to the spell-checking  code.   It  is  recommended  that  programmatic
       interfaces  prefix  every  data  line with an uparrow to protect themselves against future
       changes in ispell.

       To summarize these:

              *      Add to personal dictionary

              @      Accept word, but leave out of dictionary

              #      Save current personal dictionary

              ~      Set parameters based on filename

              +      Enter TeX mode

              -      Exit TeX mode

              !      Enter terse mode

              %      Exit terse mode

              `      Enter verbose-correction mode

              ^      Spell-check rest of line

       In terse mode, ispell will not print lines beginning with '*', '+', or '-', all  of  which
       indicate  correct  words.  This significantly improves running speed when the driving pro‐
       gram is going to ignore correct words anyway.

       In verbose-correction mode, ispell includes the original word immediately after the  indi‐
       cator  character in output lines beginning with '*', '+', and '-', which simplifies inter‐
       action for some programs.

       The -s option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options,  and  only  on  BSD-
       derived  systems.   If specified, ispell will stop itself with a SIGTSTP signal after each
       line of input.  It will not read more input until it receives a SIGCONT signal.  This  may
       be useful for handshaking with certain text editors.

       The -f option is only valid in conjunction with the -a or -A options.  If -f is specified,
       ispell will write its results to the given file, rather than to standard output.

       The -v option causes ispell to print its current version identification  on  the  standard
       output and exit.  If the switch is doubled, ispell will also print the options that it was
       compiled with.

       The -c, -e[1-5], and -D options of ispell, are primarily intended for use by the munchlist
       shell  script.   The  -c switch causes a list of words to be read from the standard input.
       For each word, a list of possible root words and affixes will be written to  the  standard
       output.   Some  of  the root words will be illegal and must be filtered from the output by
       other means; the munchlist script does this.  As an example, the command:

              echo BOTHER | ispell -c


              BOTHER BOTHE/R BOTH/R

       The -e switch is the reverse of -c; it expands affix flags to produce  a  list  of  words.
       For example, the command:

              echo BOTH/R | ispell -e


              BOTH BOTHER

       An  optional  expansion level can also be specified.  A level of 1 (-e1) is the same as -e
       alone.  A level of 2 causes the original root/affix combination to  be  prepended  to  the

              BOTH/R BOTH BOTHER

       A  level  of  3  causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated word, with the
       original root/affix combination followed by the word it creates:

              BOTH/R BOTH
              BOTH/R BOTHER

       A level of 4 causes a floating-point number to be appended to each of the  level-3  lines,
       giving  the  ratio  between  the  length of the root and the total length of all generated
       words including the root:

              BOTH/R BOTH 2.500000
              BOTH/R BOTHER 2.500000

       A level of 5 causes multiple lines to be output, one for each generated word.  If the gen‐
       erated  word  did not use any affixes, the line is just that word.  If one or more affixes
       were used, the original root and the affixes actually used are printed, joined by  a  plus
       sign; then the generated word is printed:

              BOTH+R BOTHER

       Finally,  the  -D  flag  causes  the affix tables from the dictionary file to be dumped to
       standard output.

       Ispell is aware of the correct capitalizations of words in the dictionary and in your per‐
       sonal  dictionary.   As  well as recognizing words that must be capitalized (e.g., George)
       and words that must be all-capitals (e.g., NASA), it can also handle words with  "unusual"
       capitalization  (e.g., "ITCorp" or "TeX").  If a word is capitalized incorrectly, the list
       of possibilities will include all acceptable capitalizations.  (More than one  capitaliza‐
       tion may be acceptable; for example, my dictionary lists both "ITCorp" and "ITcorp".)

       Normally,  this  feature  will  not cause you surprises, but there is one circumstance you
       need to be aware of.  If you use "I" to add a word to  your  dictionary  that  is  at  the
       beginning  of a sentence (e.g., the first word of this paragraph if "normally" were not in
       the dictionary), it will be marked as "capitalization required".  A  subsequent  usage  of
       this  word without capitalization (e.g., the quoted word in the previous sentence) will be
       considered a misspelling by ispell, and it will suggest the capitalized version.  You must
       then compare the actual spellings by eye, and then type "I" to add the uncapitalized vari‐
       ant to your personal dictionary.  You can avoid this problem by using "U" to add the orig‐
       inal word, rather than "I".

       The rules for capitalization are as follows:

       (1)    Any word may appear in all capitals, as in headings.

       (2)    Any  word that is in the dictionary in all-lowercase form may appear either in low‐
              ercase or capitalized (as at the beginning of a sentence).

       (3)    Any word that has "funny" capitalization (i.e., it contains both cases and there is
              an uppercase character besides the first) must appear exactly as in the dictionary,
              except as permitted by rule (1).  If the word is acceptable  in  all-lowercase,  it
              must appear thus in a dictionary entry.

       The  buildhash  program  builds  hashed dictionary files for later use by ispell.  The raw
       word list (with affix flags) is given in dict-file, and the the affix flags are defined by
       affix-file.   The  hashed  output  is  written to hash-file.  The formats of the two input
       files are described in ispell(5).  The -s (silent) option suppresses the usual status mes‐
       sages that are written to the standard error device.

       The  munchlist shell script is used to reduce the size of dictionary files, primarily per‐
       sonal dictionary files.  It  is  also  capable  of  combining  dictionaries  from  various
       sources.   The given files are read (standard input if no arguments are given), reduced to
       a minimal set of roots and affixes that will match the same list of words, and written  to
       standard output.

       Input  for  munchlist  contains  of raw words (e.g from your personal dictionary files) or
       root and affix combinations (probably generated in earlier munchlist runs).  Each word  or
       root/affix combination must be on a separate line.

       The -D (debug) option leaves temporary files around under standard names instead of delet‐
       ing them, so that the script can be debugged.  Warning: on a multiuser system, this can be
       a  security  hole.  To avoid possible destruction of important files, don't run the script
       as root, and set MUNCHDEBUGDIR to the name of a directory that only you can access.

       The -v (verbose) option causes progress messages to be reported to stderr so you won't get
       nervous that munchlist has hung.

       If  the  -s  (strip)  option  is  specified, words that are in the specified hash-file are
       removed from the word list.  This can be useful with personal dictionaries.

       The -l option can be used to specify an alternate affix-file for munching dictionaries  in
       languages other than English.

       The  -c  option  can  be  used to convert dictionaries that were built with an older affix
       file, without risk of accidentally introducing unintended affix combinations into the dic‐

       The  -T option allows dictionaries to be converted to a canonical string-character format.
       The suffix specified is looked up in the affix file (-l switch) to determine  the  string-
       character  format  used  for  the input file; the output always uses the canonical string-
       character format.  For example, a dictionary collected from TeX source files might be con‐
       verted to canonical format by specifying -T tex.

       The -w option is passed on to ispell.

       The  findaffix  shell script is an aid to writers of new language descriptions in choosing
       affixes.  The given dictionary files (standard input if none are given) are  examined  for
       possible  prefixes (-p switch) or suffixes (-s switch, the default).  Each commonly-occur‐
       ring affix is presented along with a count of the number of times it appears and an  esti‐
       mate of the number of bytes that would be saved in a dictionary hash file if it were added
       to the language table.  Only affixes that generate legal  roots  (found  in  the  original
       input) are listed.

       If the "-c" option is not given, the output lines are in the following format:


       where  strip  is  the  string  that  should be stripped from a root word before adding the
       affix, add is the affix to be added, count is a count of the number  of  times  that  this
       strip/add  combination appears, and bytes is an estimate of the number of bytes that might
       be saved in the raw dictionary file if this combination is added to the affix  file.   The
       field  separator  in the output will be the tab character specified by the -t switch;  the
       default is a slash ("/").

       If the -c ("clean output") option is given, the appearance of the output is made  visually
       cleaner (but harder to post-process) by changing it to:


       where strip, add, count, and bytes are as before, and <tab> represents the ASCII tab char‐

       The method used to generate possible affixes will also generate longer affixes which  have
       common  headers or trailers.  For example, the two words "moth" and "mother" will generate
       not only the obvious substitution "+er" but also "-h+her"  and  "-th+ther"  (and  possibly
       even  longer  ones, depending on the value of min).  To prevent cluttering the output with
       such affixes, any affix pair that shares a  common  header  (or,  for  prefixes,  trailer)
       string  longer  than  elim characters (default 1) will be suppressed.  You may want to set
       "elim" to a value greater than 1 if your language has string characters; usually the  need
       for this parameter will become obvious when you examine the output of your findaffix run.

       Normally,  the affixes are sorted according to the estimate of bytes saved.  The -f switch
       may be used to cause the affixes to be sorted by frequency of appearance.

       To save output file space, affixes which occur fewer than 10 times  are  eliminated;  this
       limit  may  be changed with the -l switch.  The -M switch specifies a maximum affix length
       (default 8).  Affixes longer than this will not be reported.   (This  saves  on  temporary
       disk space and makes the script run faster.)

       Affixes  which  generate  stems  shorter than 3 characters are suppressed.  (A stem is the
       word after the strip string has been removed, and before the add string has  been  added.)
       This  reduces  both  the  running time and the size of the output file.  This limit may be
       changed with the -m switch.  The minimum stem length should only be set to 1 if you have a
       lot of free time and disk space (in the range of many days and hundreds of megabytes).

       The  findaffix  script  requires  a  non-blank field-separator character for internal use.
       Normally, this character is a slash ("/"), but if the slash appears as a character in  the
       input word list, a different character can be specified with the -t switch.

       Ispell dictionaries should be expanded before being fed to findaffix; in addition, charac‐
       ters that are not in the English alphabet (if any) should be translated to lowercase.

       The tryaffix shell script is used to estimate the effectiveness of a proposed  prefix  (-p
       switch) or suffix (-s switch, the default) with a given expanded-file.  Only one affix can
       be tried with each execution of tryaffix, although  multiple  arguments  can  be  used  to
       describe varying forms of the same affix flag (e.g., the D flag for English can add either
       D or ED depending on whether a trailing E is already present).  Each word in the  expanded
       dictionary  that ends (or begins) with the chosen suffix (or prefix) has that suffix (pre‐
       fix) removed; the dictionary is then searched for root words that match the stripped word.
       Normally, all matching roots are written to standard output, but if the -c (count) flag is
       given, only a statistical summary of the results is written.  The statistics given  are  a
       count  of  words the affix potentially applies to and an estimate of the number of dictio‐
       nary bytes that a flag using the affix would save.  The estimate will be high if the  flag
       generates  words  that  are  currently  generated  by other affix flags (e.g., in English,
       bathers can be generated by either bath/X or bather/S).

       The dictionary file, expanded-file, must already be  expanded  (using  the  -e  switch  of
       ispell)  and  sorted,  and  things  will usually work best if uppercase has been folded to
       lower with 'tr'.

       The affix arguments are things to be stripped from the dictionary file  to  produce  trial
       roots: for English, con (prefix) and ing (suffix) are examples.  The addition parts of the
       argument are letters that would have been stripped off the root before adding  the  affix.
       For  example,  in  English the affix ing normally strips e for words ending in that letter
       (e.g., like becomes liking) so we might run:

              tryaffix ing ing+e

       to cover both cases.

       All of the shell scripts contain documentation as commentary at the  beginning;  sometimes
       these comments contain useful information beyond the scope of this manual page.

       It  is  possible  to  install  ispell in such a way as to only support ASCII range text if

       The icombine program is a helper for munchlist.  It reads a list of  words  in  dictionary
       format (roots plus flags) from the standard input, and produces a reduced list on standard
       output which combines common roots found on adjacent entries.  Identical roots which  have
       differing flags will have their flags combined, and roots which have differing capitaliza‐
       tions will be combined in a way which only preserves important capitalization information.
       The  optional aff-file specifies a language file which defines the character sets used and
       the meanings of the various flags.  The -T switch can be used to select among  alternative
       string  character  types  by  giving  a dummy suffix that can be found in an altstringtype
       statement.  The -w switch is identical to the same switch in ispell.

       The ijoin program is a re-implementation of join(1) which handles  long  lines  and  8-bit
       characters  correctly.   The  -s switch specifies that the sort(1) program used to prepare
       the input to ijoin uses signed comparisons on 8-bit characters; the  -u  switch  specifies
       that  sort(1)  uses  unsigned comparisons.  All other options and behaviors of join(1) are
       duplicated as exactly as possible based on the manual page, except  that  ijoin  will  not
       handle newline as a field separator.  See the join(1) manual page for more information.

              Default dictionary to use, if no -d flag is given.

              Formatter type or character encoding to use, if none is chosen by a flag option.

              Personal dictionary file name

              Code for file inclusion under the -A option

       TMPDIR Directory used for some of munchlist's temporary files

              Directory used to hold the output of munchlists' -D option.

              List of single-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of two-argument TeX keywords that ispell should ignore.

              List of HTML keywords that delimit text that should not be spell-checked.

              List of HTML fields that should always be spell-checked, even inside a tag.

              Hashed  dictionary  (may  be  found in some other local directory, depending on the

              Affix-definition file for munchlist

              For the Lookup function.

              User's private dictionary

              Directory-specific private dictionary

       egrep(1), look(1), join(1), sort(1), spell(1), sq(1), tib (if available on  your  system),
       ispell(5), english(5)

       On  some  machines  it  takes  too long for ispell to read in the hash table, depending on

       When all options are enabled, ispell may take several seconds to generate all the  guesses
       at  corrections  for  a misspelled word; on slower machines this time is long enough to be

       The hash table is stored as a quarter-megabyte (or larger) array, so a PDP-11 or 286  ver‐
       sion does not seem likely.

       Ispell should understand more troff syntax, and deal more intelligently with contractions.

       Although  small personal dictionaries are sorted before they are written out, the order of
       capitalizations of the same word is somewhat random.

       When the -x flag is specified, ispell will unlink any existing .bak file.

       There are too many flags, and many of them have non-mnemonic names.

       The -e flag should accept mnemonic arguments instead of numeric ones.

       Munchlist does not deal very gracefully with dictionaries which contain "non-word" charac‐
       ters.  Such characters ought to be deleted from the dictionary with a warning message.

       Findaffix  and munchlist require tremendous amounts of temporary file space for large dic‐
       tionaries.  They do respect the TMPDIR environment variable, so this space  can  be  redi‐
       rected.   However, a lot of the temporary space needed is for sorting, so TMPDIR is only a
       partial help on systems with an  uncooperative  sort(1).   ("Cooperative"  is  defined  as
       accepting  the undocumented -T switch).  At its peak usage, munchlist takes 10 to 40 times
       the original dictionary's size in Kb.  (The larger ratio is for dictionaries that  already
       have  heavy  affix  use, such as the one distributed with ispell).  Munchlist is also very
       slow; munching a normal-sized dictionary (15K roots, 45K expanded words) takes  around  an
       hour  on  a  small workstation.  (Most of this time is spent in sort(1), and munchlist can
       run much faster on machines that have a more modern sort that makes better use of the mem‐
       ory  available to it.)  Findaffix is even worse; the smallest English dictionary cannot be
       processed with this script in a mere  50Kb  of  free  space,  and  even  after  specifying
       switches  to reduce the temporary space required, the script will run for over 24 hours on
       a small workstation.

       Pace Willisson (pace@mit-vax), 1983, based on the PDP-10 assembly version.   That  version
       was  written  by  R.  E. Gorin in 1971, and later revised by W. E. Matson (1974) and W. B.
       Ackerman (1978).

       Collected, revised, and enhanced for the Usenet by Walt Buehring, 1987.

       Table-driven multi-lingual version by Geoff Kuenning, 1987-88.

       Large dictionaries provided by Bob Devine (vianet!devine).

       A complete list of contributors is too large to list here, but  is  distributed  with  the
       ispell sources in the file "Contributors".

       The  version  of  ispell  described  by  this  manual page is International Ispell Version
       3.1.20, 10/10/95.

                                              local                                     ISPELL(1)

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