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PANDOC_MARKDOWN(5)                     File Formats Manual                     PANDOC_MARKDOWN(5)

       pandoc_markdown - markdown syntax for pandoc(1)

       Pandoc understands an extended and slightly revised version of John Gruber's markdown syn‐
       tax.  This document explains  the  syntax,  noting  differences  from  standard  markdown.
       Except  where noted, these differences can be suppressed by using the markdown_strict for‐
       mat instead of markdown.  An extensions can be enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the  format
       name  and disabled by adding -EXTENSION.  For example, markdown_strict+footnotes is strict
       markdown with footnotes enabled, while markdown-footnotes-pipe_tables is pandoc's markdown
       without footnotes or pipe tables.

       Markdown is designed to be easy to write, and, even more importantly, easy to read:

              A  Markdown-formatted  document should be publishable as-is, as plain text, without
              looking like it's been marked up with tags or  formatting  instructions.   --  John

       This  principle has guided pandoc's decisions in finding syntax for tables, footnotes, and
       other extensions.

       There is, however, one respect in which pandoc's aims are different from the original aims
       of  markdown.  Whereas markdown was originally designed with HTML generation in mind, pan‐
       doc is designed for multiple output formats.  Thus, while pandoc allows the  embedding  of
       raw  HTML,  it discourages it, and provides other, non-HTMLish ways of representing impor‐
       tant document elements like definition lists, tables, mathematics, and footnotes.

       A paragraph is one or more lines of text followed by one or more blank line.  Newlines are
       treated as spaces, so you can reflow your paragraphs as you like.  If you need a hard line
       break, put two or more spaces at the end of a line.

       Extension: escaped_line_breaks

       A backslash followed by a newline is also a hard line break.  Note: in multiline and  grid
       table  cells,  this  is the only way to create a hard line break, since trailing spaces in
       the cells are ignored.

       There are two kinds of headers, Setext and atx.

   Setext-style headers
       A setext-style header is a line of text "underlined" with a row of = signs  (for  a  level
       one header) or - signs (for a level two header):

              A level-one header

              A level-two header

       The  header  text  can contain inline formatting, such as emphasis (see Inline formatting,

   Atx-style headers
       An Atx-style header consists of one to six # signs and a line of text, optionally followed
       by  any  number  of  #  signs.   The number of # signs at the beginning of the line is the
       header level:

              ## A level-two header

              ### A level-three header ###

       As with setext-style headers, the header text can contain formatting:

              # A level-one header with a [link](/url) and *emphasis*

       Extension: blank_before_header

       Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank  line  before  a  header.   Pandoc  does
       require  this  (except,  of course, at the beginning of the document).  The reason for the
       requirement is that it is all too easy for a # to end up at the beginning  of  a  line  by
       accident (perhaps through line wrapping).  Consider, for example:

              I like several of their flavors of ice cream:
              #22, for example, and #5.

   Header identifiers in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt
       Extension: header_attributes

       Headers can be assigned attributes using this syntax at the end of the line containing the
       header text:

              {#identifier .class .class key=value key=value}

       Although this syntax allows assignment of classes and key/value attributes,  only  identi‐
       fiers  currently  have  any  affect in the writers (and only in some writers: HTML, LaTeX,
       ConTeXt, Textile, AsciiDoc).  Thus,  for  example,  the  following  headers  will  all  be
       assigned the identifier foo:

              # My header {#foo}

              ## My header ##    {#foo}

              My other header   {#foo}

       (This syntax is compatible with PHP Markdown Extra.)

       Headers with the class unnumbered will not be numbered, even if --number-sections is spec‐
       ified.  A single hyphen (-) in an attribute context  is  equivalent  to  .unnumbered,  and
       preferable in non-English documents.  So,

              # My header {-}

       is just the same as

              # My header {.unnumbered}

       Extension: auto_identifiers

       A  header  without  an  explicitly  specified  identifier will be automatically assigned a
       unique identifier based on the header text.  To derive  the  identifier  from  the  header

       · Remove all formatting, links, etc.

       · Remove all footnotes.

       · Remove all punctuation, except underscores, hyphens, and periods.

       · Replace all spaces and newlines with hyphens.

       · Convert all alphabetic characters to lowercase.

       · Remove  everything  up  to  the first letter (identifiers may not begin with a number or
         punctuation mark).

       · If nothing is left after this, use the identifier section.

       Thus, for example,

       Header                       Identifier
       Header identifiers in HTML   header-identifiers-in-html
       Dogs?--in my house?          dogs--in-my-house
       HTML, S5, or RTF?            html-s5-or-rtf
       3.  Applications             applications
       33                           section

       These rules should, in most cases, allow one to determine the identifier from  the  header
       text.   The  exception is when several headers have the same text; in this case, the first
       will get an identifier as described above; the second will get the same identifier with -1
       appended; the third with -2; and so on.

       These  identifiers  are used to provide link targets in the table of contents generated by
       the --toc|--table-of-contents option.  They also make it easy to provide  links  from  one
       section  of  a  document to another.  A link to this section, for example, might look like

              See the section on
              [header identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html-latex-and-context).

       Note, however, that this method of providing links to sections works only in HTML,  LaTeX,
       and ConTeXt formats.

       If  the --section-divs option is specified, then each section will be wrapped in a div (or
       a section, if --html5 was specified), and the identifier will be attached to the enclosing
       <div> (or <section>) tag rather than the header itself.  This allows entire sections to be
       manipulated using javascript or treated differently in CSS.

       Extension: implicit_header_references

       Pandoc behaves as if reference links have been defined for each header.  So, instead of

              [header identifiers](#header-identifiers-in-html)

       you can simply write

              [header identifiers]


              [header identifiers][]


              [the section on header identifiers][header identifiers]

       If there are multiple headers with identical text, the corresponding reference  will  link
       to  the  first one only, and you will need to use explicit links to link to the others, as
       described above.

       Unlike regular reference links, these references are case-sensitive.

       Note: if you have defined an explicit identifier for a header, then implicit references to
       it will not work.

       Markdown  uses  email conventions for quoting blocks of text.  A block quotation is one or
       more paragraphs or other block elements (such as lists or headers), with  each  line  pre‐
       ceded  by  a  >  character  and a space.  (The > need not start at the left margin, but it
       should not be indented more than three spaces.)

              > This is a block quote. This
              > paragraph has two lines.
              > 1. This is a list inside a block quote.
              > 2. Second item.

       A "lazy" form, which requires the > character only on the first line  of  each  block,  is
       also allowed:

              > This is a block quote. This
              paragraph has two lines.

              > 1. This is a list inside a block quote.
              2. Second item.

       Among  the  block  elements that can be contained in a block quote are other block quotes.
       That is, block quotes can be nested:

              > This is a block quote.
              > > A block quote within a block quote.

       Extension: blank_before_blockquote

       Standard markdown syntax does not require a blank line before a block quote.  Pandoc  does
       require  this  (except,  of course, at the beginning of the document).  The reason for the
       requirement is that it is all too easy for a > to end up at the beginning  of  a  line  by
       accident  (perhaps through line wrapping).  So, unless the markdown_strict format is used,
       the following does not produce a nested block quote in pandoc:

              > This is a block quote.
              >> Nested.

   Indented code blocks
       A block of text indented four spaces (or one tab) is treated as verbatim  text:  that  is,
       special  characters  do not trigger special formatting, and all spaces and line breaks are
       preserved.  For example,

                  if (a > 3) {
                    moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN);

       The initial (four space or one tab) indentation is not considered  part  of  the  verbatim
       text, and is removed in the output.

       Note: blank lines in the verbatim text need not begin with four spaces.

   Fenced code blocks
       Extension: fenced_code_blocks

       In  addition  to standard indented code blocks, Pandoc supports fenced code blocks.  These
       begin with a row of three or more tildes (~) or backticks (`) and end with a row of tildes
       or  backticks that must be at least as long as the starting row.  Everything between these
       lines is treated as code.  No indentation is necessary:

              if (a > 3) {
                moveShip(5 * gravity, DOWN);

       Like regular code blocks, fenced code blocks must be separated from  surrounding  text  by
       blank lines.

       If  the code itself contains a row of tildes or backticks, just use a longer row of tildes
       or backticks at the start and end:

              code including tildes

       Optionally, you may attach attributes to the code block using this syntax:

              ~~~~ {#mycode .haskell .numberLines startFrom="100"}
              qsort []     = []
              qsort (x:xs) = qsort (filter (< x) xs) ++ [x] ++
                             qsort (filter (>= x) xs)

       Here mycode is an identifier, haskell and numberLines are classes,  and  startFrom  is  an
       attribute with value 100.  Some output formats can use this information to do syntax high‐
       lighting.  Currently, the only output formats that uses  this  information  are  HTML  and
       LaTeX.   If  highlighting  is supported for your output format and language, then the code
       block above will appear highlighted, with numbered lines.  (To  see  which  languages  are
       supported, do pandoc --version.)  Otherwise, the code block above will appear as follows:

              <pre id="mycode" class="haskell numberLines" startFrom="100">

       A shortcut form can also be used for specifying the language of the code block:

              qsort [] = []

       This is equivalent to:

              ``` {.haskell}
              qsort [] = []

       To  prevent all highlighting, use the --no-highlight flag.  To set the highlighting style,
       use --highlight-style.

       Extension: line_blocks

       A line block is a sequence of lines beginning with a vertical bar (|) followed by a space.
       The  division into lines will be preserved in the output, as will any leading spaces; oth‐
       erwise, the lines will be formatted as markdown.  This is useful for verse and addresses:

              | The limerick packs laughs anatomical
              | In space that is quite economical.
              |    But the good ones I've seen
              |    So seldom are clean
              | And the clean ones so seldom are comical

              | 200 Main St.
              | Berkeley, CA 94718

       The lines can be hard-wrapped if needed, but the  continuation  line  must  begin  with  a

              | The Right Honorable Most Venerable and Righteous Samuel L.
                Constable, Jr.
              | 200 Main St.
              | Berkeley, CA 94718

       This syntax is borrowed from reStructuredText.

   Bullet lists
       A bullet list is a list of bulleted list items.  A bulleted list item begins with a bullet
       (*, +, or -).  Here is a simple example:

              * one
              * two
              * three

       This will produce a "compact" list.  If you want a "loose" list, in  which  each  item  is
       formatted as a paragraph, put spaces between the items:

              * one

              * two

              * three

       The  bullets  need  not  be  flush with the left margin; they may be indented one, two, or
       three spaces.  The bullet must be followed by whitespace.

       List items look best if subsequent lines are flush with the first line (after the bullet):

              * here is my first
                list item.
              * and my second.

       But markdown also allows a "lazy" format:

              * here is my first
              list item.
              * and my second.

   The four-space rule
       A list item may contain multiple paragraphs and other block-level content.  However,  sub‐
       sequent  paragraphs  must  be  preceded by a blank line and indented four spaces or a tab.
       The list will look better if the first paragraph is aligned with the rest:

                * First paragraph.


                * Second paragraph. With a code block, which must be indented
                  eight spaces:

                      { code }

       List items may include other lists.  In this case the preceding blank  line  is  optional.
       The nested list must be indented four spaces or one tab:

              * fruits
                  + apples
                      - macintosh
                      - red delicious
                  + pears
                  + peaches
              * vegetables
                  + broccoli
                  + chard

       As  noted  above,  markdown  allows you to write list items "lazily," instead of indenting
       continuation lines.  However, if there are multiple paragraphs or other blocks in  a  list
       item, the first line of each must be indented.

              + A lazy, lazy, list

              + Another one; this looks
              bad but is legal.

                  Second paragraph of second
              list item.

       Note:  Although  the  four-space  rule for continuation paragraphs comes from the official
       markdown syntax guide, the reference implementation, Markdown.pl, does not follow it.   So
       pandoc  will  give different results than Markdown.pl when authors have indented continua‐
       tion paragraphs fewer than four spaces.

       The markdown syntax guide is not explicit whether  the  four-space  rule  applies  to  all
       block-level  content  in a list item; it only mentions paragraphs and code blocks.  But it
       implies that the rule applies to all block-level content  (including  nested  lists),  and
       pandoc interprets it that way.

   Ordered lists
       Ordered  lists work just like bulleted lists, except that the items begin with enumerators
       rather than bullets.

       In standard markdown, enumerators are decimal numbers followed by a period  and  a  space.
       The numbers themselves are ignored, so there is no difference between this list:

              1.  one
              2.  two
              3.  three

       and this one:

              5.  one
              7.  two
              1.  three

       Extension: fancy_lists

       Unlike standard markdown, Pandoc allows ordered list items to be marked with uppercase and
       lowercase letters and roman numerals, in addition to arabic numerals.  List markers may be
       enclosed in parentheses or followed by a single right-parentheses or period.  They must be
       separated from the text that follows by at least one space, and, if the list marker  is  a
       capital letter with a period, by at least two spaces.[1]

       The fancy_lists extension also allows '#' to be used as an ordered list marker in place of
       a numeral:

              #. one
              #. two

       Extension: startnum

       Pandoc also pays attention to the type of list marker used, and to  the  starting  number,
       and  both of these are preserved where possible in the output format.  Thus, the following
       yields a list with numbers followed by a single parenthesis, starting with 9, and  a  sub‐
       list with lowercase roman numerals:

               9)  Ninth
              10)  Tenth
              11)  Eleventh
                     i. subone
                    ii. subtwo
                   iii. subthree

       Pandoc  will  start a new list each time a different type of list marker is used.  So, the
       following will create three lists:

              (2) Two
              (5) Three
              1.  Four
              *   Five

       If default list markers are desired, use #.:

              #.  one
              #.  two
              #.  three

   Definition lists
       Extension: definition_lists

       Pandoc supports definition lists, using a  syntax  inspired  by  PHP  Markdown  Extra  and

              Term 1

              :   Definition 1

              Term 2 with *inline markup*

              :   Definition 2

                      { some code, part of Definition 2 }

                  Third paragraph of definition 2.

       Each term must fit on one line, which may optionally be followed by a blank line, and must
       be followed by one or more definitions.  A definition begins with a colon or tilde,  which
       may  be indented one or two spaces.  The body of the definition (including the first line,
       aside from the colon or tilde) should be indented four spaces.  A term may  have  multiple
       definitions,  and  each  definition  may consist of one or more block elements (paragraph,
       code block, list, etc.), each indented four spaces or one tab stop.

       If you leave space after the definition (as in the example above), the blocks of the defi‐
       nitions  will  be  considered  paragraphs.  In some output formats, this will mean greater
       spacing between term/definition pairs.  For a compact definition list, do not leave  space
       between the definition and the next term:

              Term 1
                ~ Definition 1
              Term 2
                ~ Definition 2a
                ~ Definition 2b

   Numbered example lists
       Extension: example_lists

       The  special list marker @ can be used for sequentially numbered examples.  The first list
       item with a @ marker will be numbered '1', the next '2', and so on, throughout  the  docu‐
       ment.   The  numbered examples need not occur in a single list; each new list using @ will
       take up where the last stopped.  So, for example:

              (@)  My first example will be numbered (1).
              (@)  My second example will be numbered (2).

              Explanation of examples.

              (@)  My third example will be numbered (3).

       Numbered examples can be labeled and referred to elsewhere in the document:

              (@good)  This is a good example.

              As (@good) illustrates, ...

       The label can be any string of alphanumeric characters, underscores, or hyphens.

   Compact and loose lists
       Pandoc behaves differently from Markdown.pl on some "edge cases"  involving  lists.   Con‐
       sider this source:

              +   First
              +   Second:
                   -   Fee
                   -   Fie
                   -   Foe

              +   Third

       Pandoc  transforms  this into a "compact list" (with no <p> tags around "First", "Second",
       or "Third"), while markdown puts <p> tags around "Second" and "Third" (but  not  "First"),
       because  of  the blank space around "Third".  Pandoc follows a simple rule: if the text is
       followed by a blank line, it is treated as a paragraph.  Since "Second" is followed  by  a
       list,  and  not  a blank line, it isn't treated as a paragraph.  The fact that the list is
       followed by a blank line is irrelevant.  (Note: Pandoc works this way even when the  mark‐
       down_strict  format  is specified.  This behavior is consistent with the official markdown
       syntax description, even though it is different from that of Markdown.pl.)

   Ending a list
       What if you want to put an indented code block after a list?

              -   item one
              -   item two

                  { my code block }

       Trouble! Here pandoc (like other markdown implementations) will treat { my code block } as
       the second paragraph of item two, and not as a code block.

       To  "cut  off"  the list after item two, you can insert some non-indented content, like an
       HTML comment, which won't produce visible output in any format:

              -   item one
              -   item two

              <!-- end of list -->

                  { my code block }

       You can use the same trick if you want two consecutive lists instead of one big list:

              1.  one
              2.  two
              3.  three

              <!-- -->

              1.  uno
              2.  dos
              3.  tres

       A line containing a row of three or more *, -, or _ characters  (optionally  separated  by
       spaces) produces a horizontal rule:

              *  *  *  *


       Four  kinds  of  tables  may  be  used.   The  first  three  kinds presuppose the use of a
       fixed-width font, such as Courier.  The fourth kind can be used with proportionally spaced
       fonts, as it does not require lining up columns.

   Simple tables
       Extension: simple_tables, table_captions

       Simple tables look like this:

                Right     Left     Center     Default
              -------     ------ ----------   -------
                   12     12        12            12
                  123     123       123          123
                    1     1          1             1

              Table:  Demonstration of simple table syntax.

       The headers and table rows must each fit on one line.  Column alignments are determined by
       the position of the header text relative to the dashed line below it:[3]

       · If the dashed line is flush with the header text on the right side but extends beyond it
         on the left, the column is right-aligned.

       · If  the dashed line is flush with the header text on the left side but extends beyond it
         on the right, the column is left-aligned.

       · If the dashed line extends beyond the header text on both sides, the column is centered.

       · If the dashed line is flush with the header text on both sides, the default alignment is
         used (in most cases, this will be left).

       The  table  must  end  with a blank line, or a line of dashes followed by a blank line.  A
       caption may optionally be provided (as illustrated in the example above).  A caption is  a
       paragraph  beginning  with  the string Table: (or just :), which will be stripped off.  It
       may appear either before or after the table.

       The column headers may be omitted, provided a dashed line is used to end the  table.   For

              -------     ------ ----------   -------
                   12     12        12             12
                  123     123       123           123
                    1     1          1              1
              -------     ------ ----------   -------

       When  headers are omitted, column alignments are determined on the basis of the first line
       of the table body.  So, in the tables above, the columns would be right, left, center, and
       right aligned, respectively.

   Multiline tables
       Extension: multiline_tables, table_captions

       Multiline  tables  allow  headers and table rows to span multiple lines of text (but cells
       that span multiple columns or rows of the table are not supported).  Here is an example:

               Centered   Default           Right Left
                Header    Aligned         Aligned Aligned
              ----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------
                 First    row                12.0 Example of a row that
                                                  spans multiple lines.

                Second    row                 5.0 Here's another one. Note
                                                  the blank line between

              Table: Here's the caption. It, too, may span
              multiple lines.

       These work like simple tables, but with the following differences:

       · They must begin with a row of dashes, before the header text  (unless  the  headers  are

       · They must end with a row of dashes, then a blank line.

       · The rows must be separated by blank lines.

       In multiline tables, the table parser pays attention to the widths of the columns, and the
       writers try to reproduce these relative widths in the output.  So, if you find that one of
       the columns is too narrow in the output, try widening it in the markdown source.

       Headers may be omitted in multiline tables as well as simple tables:

              ----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------
                 First    row                12.0 Example of a row that
                                                  spans multiple lines.

                Second    row                 5.0 Here's another one. Note
                                                  the blank line between
              ----------- ------- --------------- -------------------------

              : Here's a multiline table without headers.

       It  is possible for a multiline table to have just one row, but the row should be followed
       by a blank line (and then the row of dashes that ends the table),  or  the  table  may  be
       interpreted as a simple table.

   Grid tables
       Extension: grid_tables, table_captions

       Grid tables look like this:

              : Sample grid table.

              | Fruit         | Price         | Advantages         |
              | Bananas       | $1.34         | - built-in wrapper |
              |               |               | - bright color     |
              | Oranges       | $2.10         | - cures scurvy     |
              |               |               | - tasty            |

       The  row  of =s separates the header from the table body, and can be omitted for a header‐
       less table.  The cells of grid tables may contain arbitrary block elements (multiple para‐
       graphs,  code blocks, lists, etc.).  Alignments are not supported, nor are cells that span
       multiple columns or rows.  Grid tables can be created easily using Emacs table mode.

   Pipe tables
       Extension: pipe_tables, table_captions

       Pipe tables look like this:

              | Right | Left | Default | Center |
              |   12  |  12  |    12   |    12  |
              |  123  |  123 |   123   |   123  |
              |    1  |    1 |     1   |     1  |

                : Demonstration of simple table syntax.

       The syntax is the same as in PHP markdown extra.  The beginning and ending pipe characters
       are  optional,  but  pipes  are  required between all columns.  The colons indicate column
       alignment as shown.  The header can be omitted, but the  horizontal  line  must  still  be
       included, as it defines column alignments.

       Since  the  pipes  indicate  column boundaries, columns need not be vertically aligned, as
       they are in the above example.  So, this is a perfectly legal (though ugly) pipe table:

              fruit| price

       The cells of pipe tables cannot contain block elements like paragraphs and lists, and can‐
       not span multiple lines.

       Note:  Pandoc also recognizes pipe tables of the following form, as can produced by Emacs'

              | One | Two   |
              | my  | table |
              | is  | nice  |

       The difference is that + is used instead of |.  Other orgtbl features are  not  supported.
       In particular, to get non-default column alignment, you'll need to add colons as above.

       Extension: pandoc_title_block

       If the file begins with a title block

              % title
              % author(s) (separated by semicolons)
              % date

       it  will  be parsed as bibliographic information, not regular text.  (It will be used, for
       example, in the title of standalone LaTeX or HTML output.) The block may  contain  just  a
       title, a title and an author, or all three elements.  If you want to include an author but
       no title, or a title and a date but no author, you need a blank line:

              % Author

              % My title
              % June 15, 2006

       The title may occupy multiple lines, but continuation lines must begin with leading space,

              % My title
                on multiple lines

       If  a document has multiple authors, the authors may be put on separate lines with leading
       space, or separated by semicolons, or both.  So, all of the following are equivalent:

              % Author One
                Author Two

              % Author One; Author Two

              % Author One;
                Author Two

       The date must fit on one line.

       All three metadata fields may contain standard inline formatting  (italics,  links,  foot‐
       notes, etc.).

       Title blocks will always be parsed, but they will affect the output only when the --stand‐
       alone (-s) option is chosen.  In HTML output, titles will appear twice: once in the  docu‐
       ment  head  -- this is the title that will appear at the top of the window in a browser --
       and once at the beginning of the document body.  The title in the document head  can  have
       an  optional prefix attached (--title-prefix or -T option).  The title in the body appears
       as an H1 element with class "title", so it can be suppressed or reformatted with CSS.   If
       a  title prefix is specified with -T and no title block appears in the document, the title
       prefix will be used by itself as the HTML title.

       The man page writer extracts a title, man page section number, and other header and footer
       information  from  the title line.  The title is assumed to be the first word on the title
       line, which may optionally end  with  a  (single-digit)  section  number  in  parentheses.
       (There  should be no space between the title and the parentheses.)  Anything after this is
       assumed to be additional footer and header text.  A single pipe character  (|)  should  be
       used to separate the footer text from the header text.  Thus,

              % PANDOC(1)

       will yield a man page with the title PANDOC and section 1.

              % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals

       will also have "Pandoc User Manuals" in the footer.

              % PANDOC(1) Pandoc User Manuals | Version 4.0

       will also have "Version 4.0" in the header.

       Extension: yaml_metadata_block

       A  YAML  metadata block is a valid YAML object, delimited by a line of three hyphens (---)
       at the top and a line of three hyphens (---) or three dots (...) at the  bottom.   A  YAML
       metadata  block  may occur anywhere in the document, but if it is not at the beginning, it
       must be preceded by a blank line.

       Metadata will be taken from the fields of the YAML object and added to any existing  docu‐
       ment  metadata.   Metadata  can  contain  lists  and objects (nested arbitrarily), but all
       string scalars will be interpreted as markdown.  Fields with names ending in an underscore
       will be ignored by pandoc.  (They may be given a role by external processors.)

       A  document  may  contain  multiple metadata blocks.  The metadata fields will be combined
       through a left-biased union: if two metadata blocks attempt to set  the  same  field,  the
       value from the first block will be taken.

       Note  that YAML escaping rules must be followed.  Thus, for example, if a title contains a
       colon, it must be quoted.  The pipe character (|) can be used to begin an  indented  block
       that  will  be  interpreted  literally, without need for escaping.  This form is necessary
       when the field contains blank lines:

              title:  'This is the title: it contains a colon'
              - name: Author One
                affiliation: University of Somewhere
              - name: Author Two
                affiliation: University of Nowhere
              tags: [nothing, nothingness]
              abstract: |
                This is the abstract.

                It consists of two paragraphs.

       Template variables will be set automatically from the metadata.   Thus,  for  example,  in
       writing  HTML, the variable abstract will be set to the HTML equivalent of the markdown in
       the abstract field:

              <p>This is the abstract.</p>
              <p>It consists of two paragraphs.</p>

       Note: The author variable in the default templates expects a simple list  or  string.   To
       use the structured authors in the example, you would need a custom template.  For example:

              $author.name$$if(author.affiliation)$ ($author.affiliation$)$endif$

       Extension: all_symbols_escapable

       Except  inside a code block or inline code, any punctuation or space character preceded by
       a backslash will be treated literally, even if  it  would  normally  indicate  formatting.
       Thus, for example, if one writes


       one will get


       instead of


       This  rule is easier to remember than standard markdown's rule, which allows only the fol‐
       lowing characters to be backslash-escaped:


       (However, if the markdown_strict format is used, the standard markdown rule will be used.)

       A backslash-escaped space is parsed as a nonbreaking space.  It will appear in TeX  output
       as ~ and in HTML and XML as \&#160; or \&nbsp;.

       A  backslash-escaped  newline (i.e.  a backslash occurring at the end of a line) is parsed
       as a hard line break.  It will appear in TeX output as \\ and in HTML as <br />.  This  is
       a  nice alternative to markdown's "invisible" way of indicating hard line breaks using two
       trailing spaces on a line.

       Backslash escapes do not work in verbatim contexts.


       If the --smart option is specified, pandoc will produce  typographically  correct  output,
       converting  straight quotes to curly quotes, --- to em-dashes, -- to en-dashes, and ... to
       ellipses.  Nonbreaking spaces are inserted after certain abbreviations, such as "Mr."

       Note: if your LaTeX template uses the csquotes package, pandoc will  detect  automatically
       this and use \enquote{...} for quoted text.

       To emphasize some text, surround it with *s or _, like this:

              This text is _emphasized with underscores_, and this
              is *emphasized with asterisks*.

       Double * or _ produces strong emphasis:

              This is **strong emphasis** and __with underscores__.

       A * or _ character surrounded by spaces, or backslash-escaped, will not trigger emphasis:

              This is * not emphasized *, and \*neither is this\*.

       Extension: intraword_underscores

       Because  _  is  sometimes used inside words and identifiers, pandoc does not interpret a _
       surrounded by alphanumeric characters as an emphasis marker.  If  you  want  to  emphasize
       just part of a word, use *:

              feas*ible*, not feas*able*.

       Extension: strikeout

       To  strikeout  a  section of text with a horizontal line, begin and end it with ~~.  Thus,
       for example,

              This ~~is deleted text.~~

   Superscripts and subscripts
       Extension: superscript, subscript

       Superscripts may be written by surrounding the superscripted text by  ^  characters;  sub‐
       scripts  may  be  written  by surrounding the subscripted text by ~ characters.  Thus, for

              H~2~O is a liquid.  2^10^ is 1024.

       If the superscripted or subscripted text contains spaces, these  spaces  must  be  escaped
       with  backslashes.  (This is to prevent accidental superscripting and subscripting through
       the ordinary use of ~ and ^.) Thus, if you want the letter P with 'a cat'  in  subscripts,
       use P~a\ cat~, not P~a cat~.

       To make a short span of text verbatim, put it inside backticks:

              What is the difference between `>>=` and `>>`?

       If the verbatim text includes a backtick, use double backticks:

              Here is a literal backtick `` ` ``.

       (The spaces after the opening backticks and before the closing backticks will be ignored.)

       The  general  rule  is  that a verbatim span starts with a string of consecutive backticks
       (optionally followed by a space) and ends with a string of the same  number  of  backticks
       (optionally preceded by a space).

       Note  that  backslash-escapes (and other markdown constructs) do not work in verbatim con‐

              This is a backslash followed by an asterisk: `\*`.

       Extension: inline_code_attributes

       Attributes can be attached to verbatim text, just as with fenced code blocks:


       Extension: tex_math_dollars

       Anything between two $ characters will be treated as TeX math.  The opening $ must have  a
       character  immediately to its right, while the closing $ must have a character immediately
       to its left.  Thus, $20,000 and $30,000 won't parse as math.  If for some reason you  need
       to  enclose  text in literal $ characters, backslash-escape them and they won't be treated
       as math delimiters.

       TeX math will be printed in all output formats.  How it is rendered depends on the  output

       Markdown, LaTeX, Org-Mode, ConTeXt
              It will appear verbatim between $ characters.

              It will be rendered using an interpreted text role :math:, as described here.

              It will be rendered as latexmath:[...].

              It will be rendered inside a @math command.

       groff man
              It will be rendered verbatim without $'s.

              It will be rendered inside <math> tags.

              It will be rendered inside <span class="math"> tags.

       RTF, OpenDocument, ODT
              It  will  be  rendered,  if  possible, using unicode characters, and will otherwise
              appear verbatim.

              If the --mathml flag is used, it will be rendered using mathml in an inlineequation
              or informalequation tag.  Otherwise it will be rendered, if possible, using unicode

       Docx   It will be rendered using OMML math markup.

              If the --webtex option is used, formulas are rendered as images using Google Charts
              or other compatible web service, downloaded and embedded in the e-book.  Otherwise,
              they will appear verbatim.

       HTML, Slidy, DZSlides, S5, EPUB
              The way math is rendered in HTML will depend on the command-line options selected:

              1. The default is to render TeX math as far as possible using  unicode  characters,
                 as  with  RTF, DocBook, and OpenDocument output.  Formulas are put inside a span
                 with class="math", so that they may be styled differently from  the  surrounding
                 text if needed.

              2. If  the --latexmathml option is used, TeX math will be displayed between $ or $$
                 characters and put in <span> tags with class LaTeX.  The LaTeXMathML script will
                 be  used  to  render it as formulas.  (This trick does not work in all browsers,
                 but it works in Firefox.  In browsers that do not support LaTeXMathML, TeX  math
                 will appear verbatim between $ characters.)

              3. If  the  --jsmath  option  is used, TeX math will be put inside <span> tags (for
                 inline math) or <div> tags (for display  math)  with  class  math.   The  jsMath
                 script will be used to render it.

              4. If the --mimetex option is used, the mimeTeX CGI script will be called to gener‐
                 ate images for each TeX formula.  This should work in all browsers.  The --mime‐
                 tex  option  takes an optional URL as argument.  If no URL is specified, it will
                 be assumed that the mimeTeX CGI script is at /cgi-bin/mimetex.cgi.

              5. If the --gladtex option is used, TeX formulas will be enclosed in <eq>  tags  in
                 the  HTML  output.   The  resulting  htex file may then be processed by gladTeX,
                 which will produce image files for each formula and an html file with  links  to
                 these images.  So, the procedure is:

                         pandoc -s --gladtex myfile.txt -o myfile.htex
                         gladtex -d myfile-images myfile.htex
                         # produces myfile.html and images in myfile-images

              6. If  the  --webtex  option  is used, TeX formulas will be converted to <img> tags
                 that link to an external script that converts formulas to images.   The  formula
                 will be URL-encoded and concatenated with the URL provided.  If no URL is speci‐
                 fied,      the       Google       Chart       API       will       be       used

              7. If the --mathjax option is used, TeX math will be displayed between \(...\) (for
                 inline math) or \[...\] (for display math) and put in  <span>  tags  with  class
                 math.  The MathJax script will be used to render it as formulas.

       Extension: raw_html

       Markdown  allows you to insert raw HTML (or DocBook) anywhere in a document (except verba‐
       tim contexts, where <, >, and & are interpreted literally).  (Technically this is  not  an
       extension, since standard markdown allows it, but it has been made an extension so that it
       can be disabled if desired.)

       The raw HTML is passed through unchanged in HTML, S5,  Slidy,  Slideous,  DZSlides,  EPUB,
       Markdown, and Textile output, and suppressed in other formats.

       Extension: markdown_in_html_blocks

       Standard  markdown  allows  you  to include HTML "blocks": blocks of HTML between balanced
       tags that are separated from the surrounding text with blank lines, and start and  end  at
       the left margin.  Within these blocks, everything is interpreted as HTML, not markdown; so
       (for example), * does not signify emphasis.

       Pandoc behaves this way when the markdown_strict format is used; but  by  default,  pandoc
       interprets  material  between HTML block tags as markdown.  Thus, for example, Pandoc will

                        <td>[a link](http://google.com)</td>


                        <td><a href="http://google.com">a link</a></td>

       whereas Markdown.pl will preserve it as is.

       There is one exception to this rule: text between <script> and <style> tags is not  inter‐
       preted as markdown.

       This  departure  from  standard  markdown  should make it easier to mix markdown with HTML
       block elements.  For example, one can surround a block of markdown text  with  <div>  tags
       without preventing it from being interpreted as markdown.

       Extension: raw_tex

       In  addition  to  raw  HTML, pandoc allows raw LaTeX, TeX, and ConTeXt to be included in a
       document.  Inline TeX commands will be preserved and passed unchanged  to  the  LaTeX  and
       ConTeXt writers.  Thus, for example, you can use LaTeX to include BibTeX citations:

              This result was proved in \cite{jones.1967}.

       Note that in LaTeX environments, like

              Age & Frequency \\ \hline
              18--25  & 15 \\
              26--35  & 33 \\
              36--45  & 22 \\ \hline

       the material between the begin and end tags will be interpreted as raw LaTeX, not as mark‐

       Inline LaTeX is ignored in output formats other than Markdown, LaTeX, and ConTeXt.

       Extension: latex_macros

       For output formats other than LaTeX, pandoc will parse LaTeX \newcommand and \renewcommand
       definitions  and  apply the resulting macros to all LaTeX math.  So, for example, the fol‐
       lowing will work in all output formats, not just LaTeX:

              \newcommand{\tuple}[1]{\langle #1 \rangle}

              $\tuple{a, b, c}$

       In LaTeX output, the \newcommand definition will simply be passed unchanged to the output.

       Markdown allows links to be specified in several ways.

   Automatic links
       If you enclose a URL or email address in pointy brackets, it will become a link:

              <sam AT green.ham>

   Inline links
       An inline link consists of the link text in square brackets, followed by the URL in paren‐
       theses.  (Optionally, the URL can be followed by a link title, in quotes.)

              This is an [inline link](/url), and here's [one with
              a title](http://fsf.org "click here for a good time!").

       There  can  be  no  space between the bracketed part and the parenthesized part.  The link
       text can contain formatting (such as emphasis), but the title cannot.

   Reference links
       An explicit reference link has two parts, the link itself and the link  definition,  which
       may occur elsewhere in the document (either before or after the link).

       The link consists of link text in square brackets, followed by a label in square brackets.
       (There can be space between the two.) The link definition consists of the bracketed label,
       followed  by  a  colon  and a space, followed by the URL, and optionally (after a space) a
       link title either in quotes or in parentheses.

       Here are some examples:

              [my label 1]: /foo/bar.html  "My title, optional"
              [my label 2]: /foo
              [my label 3]: http://fsf.org (The free software foundation)
              [my label 4]: /bar#special  'A title in single quotes'

       The URL may optionally be surrounded by angle brackets:

              [my label 5]: <http://foo.bar.baz>

       The title may go on the next line:

              [my label 3]: http://fsf.org
                "The free software foundation"

       Note that link labels are not case sensitive.  So, this will work:

              Here is [my link][FOO]

              [Foo]: /bar/baz

       In an implicit reference link, the second pair of brackets is empty, or omitted entirely:

              See [my website][], or [my website].

              [my website]: http://foo.bar.baz

       Note: In Markdown.pl and most other markdown implementations, reference  link  definitions
       cannot  occur  in  nested  constructions such as list items or block quotes.  Pandoc lifts
       this arbitrary seeming restriction.  So the following is fine in  pandoc,  though  not  in
       most other implementations:

              > My block [quote].
              > [quote]: /foo

   Internal links
       To  link  to another section of the same document, use the automatically generated identi‐
       fier (see Header identifiers in HTML, LaTeX, and ConTeXt, below).  For example:

              See the [Introduction](#introduction).


              See the [Introduction].

              [Introduction]: #introduction

       Internal links are currently supported for HTML formats (including HTML  slide  shows  and
       EPUB), LaTeX, and ConTeXt.

       A  link  immediately  preceded  by a ! will be treated as an image.  The link text will be
       used as the image's alt text:

              ![la lune](lalune.jpg "Voyage to the moon")

              ![movie reel]

              [movie reel]: movie.gif

   Pictures with captions
       Extension: implicit_figures

       An image occurring by itself in a paragraph will be rendered  as  a  figure  with  a  cap‐
       tion.[4]  (In  LaTeX, a figure environment will be used; in HTML, the image will be placed
       in a div with class figure, together with a caption  in  a  p  with  class  caption.)  The
       image's alt text will be used as the caption.

              ![This is the caption](/url/of/image.png)

       If  you  just  want a regular inline image, just make sure it is not the only thing in the
       paragraph.  One way to do this is to insert a nonbreaking space after the image:

              ![This image won't be a figure](/url/of/image.png)\

       Extension: footnotes

       Pandoc's markdown allows footnotes, using the following syntax:

              Here is a footnote reference,[^1] and another.[^longnote]

              [^1]: Here is the footnote.

              [^longnote]: Here's one with multiple blocks.

                  Subsequent paragraphs are indented to show that they
              belong to the previous footnote.

                      { some.code }

                  The whole paragraph can be indented, or just the first
                  line.  In this way, multi-paragraph footnotes work like
                  multi-paragraph list items.

              This paragraph won't be part of the note, because it
              isn't indented.

       The identifiers in footnote references may not contain spaces, tabs, or  newlines.   These
       identifiers are used only to correlate the footnote reference with the note itself; in the
       output, footnotes will be numbered sequentially.

       The footnotes themselves need not be placed at the end of the document.  They  may  appear
       anywhere except inside other block elements (lists, block quotes, tables, etc.).

       Extension: inline_notes

       Inline  footnotes are also allowed (though, unlike regular notes, they cannot contain mul‐
       tiple paragraphs).  The syntax is as follows:

              Here is an inline note.^[Inlines notes are easier to write, since
              you don't have to pick an identifier and move down to type the

       Inline and regular footnotes may be mixed freely.

       Extension: citations

       Using an external filter, pandoc-citeproc, pandoc can automatically generate citations and
       a bibliography in a number of styles.  Basic usage is

              pandoc --filter pandoc-citeproc myinput.txt

       In  order to use this feature, you will need to specify a bibliography file using the bib‐
       liography metadata field in a YAML metadata section.  The bibliography  may  have  any  of
       these formats:

       Format          File extension
       MODS            .mods
       BibLaTeX        .bib
       BibTeX          .bibtex
       RIS             .ris
       EndNote         .enl
       EndNote XML     .xml
       ISI             .wos
       MEDLINE         .medline
       Copac           .copac
       JSON citeproc   .json

       Note  that .bib can generally be used with both BibTeX and BibLaTeX files, but you can use
       .bibtex to force BibTeX.

       Alternatively you can use a references field in the document's YAML metadata.  This should
       include an array of YAML-encoded references, for example:

              - id: fenner2012a
                title: One-click science marketing
                - family: Fenner
                  given: Martin
                container-title: Nature Materials
                volume: 11
                URL: 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmat3283'
                DOI: 10.1038/nmat3283
                issue: 4
                publisher: Nature Publishing Group
                page: 261-263
                type: article-journal
                  year: 2012
                  month: 3

       (The  program  mods2yaml,  which comes with pandoc-citeproc, can help produce these from a
       MODS reference collection.)

       By default, pandoc-citeproc will use a Chicago author-date format for citations and refer‐
       ences.   To  use  another  style, you will need to specify a CSL 1.0 style file in the csl
       metadata field.   A  primer  on  creating  and  modifying  CSL  styles  can  be  found  at
       http://citationstyles.org/downloads/primer.html.   A repository of CSL styles can be found
       at https://github.com/citation-style-language/styles.  See  also  http://zotero.org/styles
       for easy browsing.

       Citations  go  inside square brackets and are separated by semicolons.  Each citation must
       have a key, composed of '@' + the citation identifier from the database, and  may  option‐
       ally have a prefix, a locator, and a suffix.  The citation key must begin with a letter or
       _, and may contain alphanumerics, _, and internal punctuation characters  (:.#$%&-+?<>~/).
       Here are some examples:

              Blah blah [see @doe99, pp. 33-35; also @smith04, ch. 1].

              Blah blah [@doe99, pp. 33-35, 38-39 and *passim*].

              Blah blah [@smith04; @doe99].

       A  minus  sign (-) before the @ will suppress mention of the author in the citation.  This
       can be useful when the author is already mentioned in the text:

              Smith says blah [-@smith04].

       You can also write an in-text citation, as follows:

              @smith04 says blah.

              @smith04 [p. 33] says blah.

       If the style calls for a list of works cited, it will be placed at the end  of  the  docu‐
       ment.  Normally, you will want to end your document with an appropriate header:

              last paragraph...

              # References

       The  bibliography will be inserted after this header.  Note that the unnumbered class will
       be added to this header, so that the section will not be numbered.

       If you want to include items in the bibliography without actually citing them in the  body
       text, you can define a dummy nocite metadata field and put the citations there:

               | @item1, @item2


       In this example, the document will contain a citation for item3 only, but the bibliography
       will contain entries for item1, item2, and item3.

       The following markdown syntax extensions are not enabled by default in pandoc, but may  be
       enabled by adding +EXTENSION to the format name, where EXTENSION is the name of the exten‐
       sion.  Thus, for example, markdown+hard_line_breaks is markdown with hard line breaks.

       Extension: lists_without_preceding_blankline
       Allow a list to occur right after a paragraph, with no intervening blank space.

       Extension: hard_line_breaks
       Causes all newlines within a paragraph to be interpreted as hard line  breaks  instead  of

       Extension: ignore_line_breaks
       Causes  newlines  within a paragraph to be ignored, rather than being treated as spaces or
       as hard line breaks.  This option is intended for use with East Asian languages where spa‐
       ces are not used between words, but text is divided into lines for readability.

       Extension: tex_math_single_backslash
       Causes  anything  between  \(  and  \)  to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything
       between \[ and \] to be interpreted as display TeX math.  Note: a drawback of this  exten‐
       sion is that it precludes escaping ( and [.

       Extension: tex_math_double_backslash
       Causes  anything  between  \\(  and \\) to be interpreted as inline TeX math, and anything
       between \\[ and \\] to be interpreted as display TeX math.

       Extension: markdown_attribute
       By default, pandoc interprets material inside block-level tags as markdown.   This  exten‐
       sion  changes  the behavior so that markdown is only parsed inside block-level tags if the
       tags have the attribute markdown=1.

       Extension: mmd_title_block
       Enables a MultiMarkdown style title block at the top of the document, for example:

              Title:   My title
              Author:  John Doe
              Date:    September 1, 2008
              Comment: This is a sample mmd title block, with
                       a field spanning multiple lines.

       See the MultiMarkdown documentation for  details.   If  pandoc_title_block  or  yaml_meta‐
       data_block is enabled, it will take precedence over mmd_title_block.

       Extension: abbreviations
       Parses PHP Markdown Extra abbreviation keys, like

              *[HTML]: Hyper Text Markup Language

       Note  that  the pandoc document model does not support abbreviations, so if this extension
       is enabled, abbreviation keys are simply skipped (as opposed  to  being  parsed  as  para‐

       Extension: autolink_bare_uris
       Makes all absolute URIs into links, even when not surrounded by pointy braces <...>.

       Extension: ascii_identifiers
       Causes  the  identifiers  produced  by  auto_identifiers  to  be  pure ASCII.  Accents are
       stripped off of accented latin letters, and non-latin letters are omitted.

       Extension: link_attributes
       Parses multimarkdown style key-value attributes on link and image references.   Note  that
       pandoc's internal document model provides nowhere to put these, so they are presently just

       Extension: mmd_header_identifiers
       Parses multimarkdown style header identifiers (in square brackets, after  the  header  but
       before any trailing #s in an ATX header).

       In addition to pandoc's extended markdown, the following markdown variants are supported:

       markdown_phpextra (PHP Markdown Extra)
              footnotes,  pipe_tables,  raw_html, markdown_attribute, fenced_code_blocks, defini‐
              tion_lists, intraword_underscores, header_attributes, abbreviations.

       markdown_github (Github-flavored Markdown)
              pipe_tables,     raw_html,      tex_math_single_backslash,      fenced_code_blocks,
              fenced_code_attributes,  auto_identifiers, ascii_identifiers, backtick_code_blocks,
              autolink_bare_uris, intraword_underscores, strikeout, hard_line_breaks

       markdown_mmd (MultiMarkdown)
              pipe_tables raw_html, markdown_attribute, link_attributes,  raw_tex,  tex_math_dou‐
              ble_backslash, intraword_underscores, mmd_title_block, footnotes, definition_lists,
              all_symbols_escapable,        implicit_header_references,         auto_identifiers,

       markdown_strict (Markdown.pl)

       Some of the extensions discussed above can be used with formats other than markdown:

       · auto_identifiers  can be used with latex, rst, mediawiki, and textile input (and is used
         by default).

       · tex_math_dollars, tex_math_single_backslash, and tex_math_double_backslash can  be  used
         with  html  input.   (This  is  handy for reading web pages formatted using MathJax, for

       The point of this rule is to ensure that normal paragraphs  starting  with  people's  ini‐
       tials, like

              B. Russell was an English philosopher.

       do not get treated as list items.

       This rule will not prevent

              (C) 2007 Joe Smith

       from being interpreted as a list item.  In this case, a backslash escape can be used:

              (C\) 2007 Joe Smith

       I have also been influenced by the suggestions of David Wheeler.

       This scheme is due to Michel Fortin, who proposed it on the Markdown discussion list.

       This  feature  is  not  yet  implemented for RTF, OpenDocument, or ODT.  In those formats,
       you'll just get an image in a paragraph by itself, with no caption.

       pandoc (1).

Pandoc User's Guide                      January 19, 2013                      PANDOC_MARKDOWN(5)

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