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SOURCES.LIST(5)                                APT                                SOURCES.LIST(5)

       sources.list - List of configured APT data sources

       The source list /etc/apt/sources.list is designed to support any number of active sources
       and a variety of source media. The file lists one source per line, with the most preferred
       source listed first. The information available from the configured sources is acquired by
       apt-get update (or by an equivalent command from another APT front-end).

       Each line specifying a source starts with type (e.g.  deb-src) followed by options and
       arguments for this type. Individual entries cannot be continued onto a following line.
       Empty lines are ignored, and a # character anywhere on a line marks the remainder of that
       line as a comment.

       The /etc/apt/sources.list.d directory provides a way to add sources.list entries in
       separate files. The format is the same as for the regular sources.list file. File names
       need to end with .list and may only contain letters (a-z and A-Z), digits (0-9),
       underscore (_), hyphen (-) and period (.) characters. Otherwise APT will print a notice
       that it has ignored a file, unless that file matches a pattern in the
       Dir::Ignore-Files-Silently configuration list - in which case it will be silently ignored.

       The deb type references a typical two-level Debian archive, distribution/component. The
       distribution is generally an archive name like stable or testing or a codename like jessie
       or stretch while component is one of main, contrib or non-free. The deb-src type
       references a Debian distribution's source code in the same form as the deb type. A deb-src
       line is required to fetch source indexes.

       The format for a sources.list entry using the deb and deb-src types is:

           deb [ options ] uri suite [component1] [component2] [...]

       Alternatively a rfc822 style format is also supported:

                Types: deb deb-src
                URIs: http://example.com
                Suites: stable testing
                Sections: component1 component2
                Description: short
                 long long long
                [option1]: [option1-value]

                Types: deb
                URIs: http://another.example.com
                Suites: experimental
                Sections: component1 component2
                Enabled: no
                Description: short
                 long long long
                [option1]: [option1-value]

       The URI for the deb type must specify the base of the Debian distribution, from which APT
       will find the information it needs.  suite can specify an exact path, in which case the
       components must be omitted and suite must end with a slash (/). This is useful for the
       case when only a particular sub-section of the archive denoted by the URI is of interest.
       If suite does not specify an exact path, at least one component must be present.

       suite may also contain a variable, $(ARCH) which expands to the Debian architecture (such
       as amd64 or armel) used on the system. This permits architecture-independent sources.list
       files to be used. In general this is only of interest when specifying an exact path, APT
       will automatically generate a URI with the current architecture otherwise.

       In the traditional style sources.list format since only one distribution can be specified
       per line it may be necessary to have multiple lines for the same URI, if a subset of all
       available distributions or components at that location is desired. APT will sort the URI
       list after it has generated a complete set internally, and will collapse multiple
       references to the same Internet host, for instance, into a single connection, so that it
       does not inefficiently establish an FTP connection, close it, do something else, and then
       re-establish a connection to that same host. This feature is useful for accessing busy FTP
       sites with limits on the number of simultaneous anonymous users. APT also parallelizes
       connections to different hosts to more effectively deal with sites with low bandwidth.

       options is always optional and needs to be surrounded by square brackets. It can consist
       of multiple settings in the form setting=value. Multiple settings are separated by spaces.
       The following settings are supported by APT (note however that unsupported settings will
       be ignored silently):

       ·   arch=arch1,arch2,...  can be used to specify for which architectures information
           should be downloaded. If this option is not set all architectures defined by the
           APT::Architectures option will be downloaded.

       ·   arch+=arch1,arch2,...  and arch-=arch1,arch2,...  which can be used to add/remove
           architectures from the set which will be downloaded.

       ·   trusted=yes can be set to indicate that packages from this source are always
           authenticated even if the Release file is not signed or the signature can't be
           checked. This disables parts of apt-secure(8) and should therefore only be used in a
           local and trusted context.  trusted=no is the opposite which handles even correctly
           authenticated sources as not authenticated.

       It is important to list sources in order of preference, with the most preferred source
       listed first. Typically this will result in sorting by speed from fastest to slowest
       (CD-ROM followed by hosts on a local network, followed by distant Internet hosts, for

       Some examples:

           deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main contrib non-free
           deb http://security.debian.org/ jessie/updates main contrib non-free

       The currently recognized URI types are:

           The file scheme allows an arbitrary directory in the file system to be considered an
           archive. This is useful for NFS mounts and local mirrors or archives.

           The cdrom scheme allows APT to use a local CD-ROM drive with media swapping. Use the
           apt-cdrom(8) program to create cdrom entries in the source list.

           The http scheme specifies an HTTP server for the archive. If an environment variable
           http_proxy is set with the format http://server:port/, the proxy server specified in
           http_proxy will be used. Users of authenticated HTTP/1.1 proxies may use a string of
           the format http://user:pass@server:port/. Note that this is an insecure method of

           The ftp scheme specifies an FTP server for the archive. APT's FTP behavior is highly
           configurable; for more information see the apt.conf(5) manual page. Please note that
           an FTP proxy can be specified by using the ftp_proxy environment variable. It is
           possible to specify an HTTP proxy (HTTP proxy servers often understand FTP URLs) using
           this environment variable and only this environment variable. Proxies using HTTP
           specified in the configuration file will be ignored.

           The copy scheme is identical to the file scheme except that packages are copied into
           the cache directory instead of used directly at their location. This is useful for
           people using removable media to copy files around with APT.

       rsh, ssh
           The rsh/ssh method invokes RSH/SSH to connect to a remote host and access the files as
           a given user. Prior configuration of rhosts or RSA keys is recommended. The standard
           find and dd commands are used to perform the file transfers from the remote host.

       adding more recognizable URI types
           APT can be extended with more methods shipped in other optional packages, which should
           follow the naming scheme apt-transport-method. For instance, the APT team also
           maintains the package apt-transport-https, which provides access methods for HTTPS
           URIs with features similar to the http method. Methods for using e.g. debtorrent are
           also available - see apt-transport-debtorrent(1).

       Uses the archive stored locally (or NFS mounted) at /home/jason/debian for stable/main,
       stable/contrib, and stable/non-free.

           deb file:/home/jason/debian stable main contrib non-free

       As above, except this uses the unstable (development) distribution.

           deb file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free

       Source line for the above

           deb-src file:/home/jason/debian unstable main contrib non-free

       The first line gets package information for the architectures in APT::Architectures while
       the second always retrieves amd64 and armel.

           deb http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main
           deb [ arch=amd64,armel ] http://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie main

       Uses HTTP to access the archive at archive.debian.org, and uses only the hamm/main area.

           deb http://archive.debian.org/debian-archive hamm main

       Uses FTP to access the archive at ftp.debian.org, under the debian directory, and uses
       only the jessie/contrib area.

           deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian jessie contrib

       Uses FTP to access the archive at ftp.debian.org, under the debian directory, and uses
       only the unstable/contrib area. If this line appears as well as the one in the previous
       example in sources.list a single FTP session will be used for both resource lines.

           deb ftp://ftp.debian.org/debian unstable contrib

       Uses HTTP to access the archive at ftp.tlh.debian.org, under the universe directory, and
       uses only files found under unstable/binary-i386 on i386 machines, unstable/binary-amd64
       on amd64, and so forth for other supported architectures. [Note this example only
       illustrates how to use the substitution variable; official debian archives are not
       structured like this]

           deb http://ftp.tlh.debian.org/universe unstable/binary-$(ARCH)/


       APT bug page[1]. If you wish to report a bug in APT, please see
       /usr/share/doc/debian/bug-reporting.txt or the reportbug(1) command.

       Jason Gunthorpe

       APT team

        1. APT bug page

APT                            18 January 2014                          SOURCES.LIST(5)

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