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terminfo(5) - phpMan

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terminfo(5)                                File Formats                               terminfo(5)

       terminfo - terminal capability data base


       Terminfo  is  a  data  base describing terminals, used by screen-oriented programs such as
       nvi(1), rogue(1) and libraries such as ncurses(3NCURSES).  Terminfo describes terminals by
       giving  a  set of capabilities which they have, by specifying how to perform screen opera‐
       tions,  and  by  specifying  padding  requirements  and  initialization  sequences.   This
       describes ncurses version 5.9 (patch 20140913).

       Entries  in terminfo consist of a sequence of `,' separated fields (embedded commas may be
       escaped with a backslash or notated as \054).  White space  after  the  `,'  separator  is
       ignored.  The first entry for each terminal gives the names which are known for the termi‐
       nal, separated by `|' characters.  The first name given is the  most  common  abbreviation
       for  the  terminal, the last name given should be a long name fully identifying the termi‐
       nal, and all others are understood as synonyms for the terminal name.  All names  but  the
       last  should  be in lower case and contain no blanks; the last name may well contain upper
       case and blanks for readability.

       Lines beginning with a `#' in the first column are treated  as  comments.   While  comment
       lines are legal at any point, the output of captoinfo and infotocap (aliases for tic) will
       move comments so they occur only between entries.

       Newlines and leading tabs may be used for formatting entries for readability.   These  are
       removed  from parsed entries.  The infocmp -f option relies on this to format if-then-else
       expressions: the result can be read by tic.

       Terminal names (except for the last, verbose entry) should be chosen using  the  following
       conventions.   The  particular piece of hardware making up the terminal should have a root
       name, thus “hp2621”.  This name should not contain hyphens.  Modes that the  hardware  can
       be  in,  or user preferences, should be indicated by appending a hyphen and a mode suffix.
       Thus, a vt100 in 132 column mode would be vt100-w.  The following suffixes should be  used
       where possible:

                      Suffix                  Meaning                   Example
                      -nn      Number of lines on the screen            aaa-60
                      -np      Number of pages of memory                c100-4p
                      -am      With automargins (usually the default)   vt100-am
                      -m       Mono mode; suppress color                ansi-m
                      -mc      Magic cookie; spaces when highlighting   wy30-mc
                      -na      No arrow keys (leave them in local)      c100-na
                      -nam     Without automatic margins                vt100-nam
                      -nl      No status line                           att4415-nl
                      -ns      No status line                           hp2626-ns
                      -rv      Reverse video                            c100-rv
                      -s       Enable status line                       vt100-s
                      -vb      Use visible bell instead of beep         wy370-vb
                      -w       Wide mode (> 80 columns, usually 132)    vt100-w

       For more on terminal naming conventions, see the term(7) manual page.

   Predefined Capabilities
       The  following  is a complete table of the capabilities included in a terminfo description
       block and available to terminfo-using code.  In each line of the table,

       The variable is the name by which the programmer (at  the  terminfo  level)  accesses  the

       The  capname  is  the short name used in the text of the database, and is used by a person
       updating the database.  Whenever possible, capnames are chosen to be the same as or  simi‐
       lar  to  the  ANSI X3.64-1979 standard (now superseded by ECMA-48, which uses identical or
       very similar names).  Semantics are also intended to match those of the specification.

       The termcap code is the old termcap capability name (some capabilities are new,  and  have
       names which termcap did not originate).

       Capability names have no hard length limit, but an informal limit of 5 characters has been
       adopted to keep them short and to allow the tabs in  the  source  file  Caps  to  line  up

       Finally,  the  description  field attempts to convey the semantics of the capability.  You
       may find some codes in the description field:

       (P)    indicates that padding may be specified

       #[1-9] in the description field indicates that the string is  passed  through  tparm  with
              parms as given (#i).

       (P*)   indicates that padding may vary in proportion to the number of lines affected

       (#i)   indicates the ith parameter.

       These are the boolean capabilities:

               Variable                     Cap-             TCap                Description
               Booleans                     name             Code
       auto_left_margin                     bw               bw              cub1 wraps from col‐
                                                                             umn 0 to last column
       auto_right_margin                    am               am              terminal has auto‐
                                                                             matic margins
       back_color_erase                     bce              ut              screen erased with
                                                                             background color
       can_change                           ccc              cc              terminal can re-
                                                                             define existing col‐
       ceol_standout_glitch                 xhp              xs              standout not erased
                                                                             by overwriting (hp)
       col_addr_glitch                      xhpa             YA              only positive motion
                                                                             for hpa/mhpa caps
       cpi_changes_res                      cpix             YF              changing character
                                                                             pitch changes reso‐
       cr_cancels_micro_mode                crxm             YB              using cr turns off
                                                                             micro mode
       dest_tabs_magic_smso                 xt               xt              tabs destructive,
                                                                             magic so char
       eat_newline_glitch                   xenl             xn              newline ignored
                                                                             after 80 cols (con‐
       erase_overstrike                     eo               eo              can erase over‐
                                                                             strikes with a blank
       generic_type                         gn               gn              generic line type
       hard_copy                            hc               hc              hardcopy terminal
       hard_cursor                          chts             HC              cursor is hard to
       has_meta_key                         km               km              Has a meta key
                                                                             (i.e., sets 8th-bit)
       has_print_wheel                      daisy            YC              printer needs opera‐
                                                                             tor to change char‐
                                                                             acter set

       has_status_line                      hs               hs              has extra status
       hue_lightness_saturation             hls              hl              terminal uses only
                                                                             HLS color notation
       insert_null_glitch                   in               in              insert mode distin‐
                                                                             guishes nulls
       lpi_changes_res                      lpix             YG              changing line pitch
                                                                             changes resolution
       memory_above                         da               da              display may be
                                                                             retained above the
       memory_below                         db               db              display may be
                                                                             retained below the
       move_insert_mode                     mir              mi              safe to move while
                                                                             in insert mode
       move_standout_mode                   msgr             ms              safe to move while
                                                                             in standout mode
       needs_xon_xoff                       nxon             nx              padding will not
                                                                             work, xon/xoff
       no_esc_ctlc                          xsb              xb              beehive (f1=escape,
                                                                             f2=ctrl C)
       no_pad_char                          npc              NP              pad character does
                                                                             not exist
       non_dest_scroll_region               ndscr            ND              scrolling region is
       non_rev_rmcup                        nrrmc            NR              smcup does not
                                                                             reverse rmcup
       over_strike                          os               os              terminal can over‐
       prtr_silent                          mc5i             5i              printer will not
                                                                             echo on screen
       row_addr_glitch                      xvpa             YD              only positive motion
                                                                             for vpa/mvpa caps
       semi_auto_right_margin               sam              YE              printing in last
                                                                             column causes cr
       status_line_esc_ok                   eslok            es              escape can be used
                                                                             on the status line
       tilde_glitch                         hz               hz              cannot print ~'s
       transparent_underline                ul               ul              underline character
       xon_xoff                             xon              xo              terminal uses
                                                                             xon/xoff handshaking

       These are the numeric capabilities:

               Variable                     Cap-             TCap                Description
                Numeric                     name             Code
       columns                              cols             co              number of columns in
                                                                             a line
       init_tabs                            it               it              tabs initially every
                                                                             # spaces
       label_height                         lh               lh              rows in each label
       label_width                          lw               lw              columns in each
       lines                                lines            li              number of lines on
                                                                             screen or page
       lines_of_memory                      lm               lm              lines of memory if >
                                                                             line. 0 means varies

       magic_cookie_glitch                  xmc              sg              number of blank
                                                                             characters left by
                                                                             smso or rmso
       max_attributes                       ma               ma              maximum combined
                                                                             attributes terminal
                                                                             can handle
       max_colors                           colors           Co              maximum number of
                                                                             colors on screen
       max_pairs                            pairs            pa              maximum number of
                                                                             color-pairs on the
       maximum_windows                      wnum             MW              maximum number of
                                                                             defineable windows
       no_color_video                       ncv              NC              video attributes
                                                                             that cannot be used
                                                                             with colors
       num_labels                           nlab             Nl              number of labels on
       padding_baud_rate                    pb               pb              lowest baud rate
                                                                             where padding needed
       virtual_terminal                     vt               vt              virtual terminal
                                                                             number (CB/unix)
       width_status_line                    wsl              ws              number of columns in
                                                                             status line

       The following numeric capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but  are  not
       yet documented in the man page.  They came in with SVr4's printer support.

               Variable                     Cap-             TCap                Description
                Numeric                     name             Code
       bit_image_entwining                  bitwin           Yo              number of passes for
                                                                             each bit-image row
       bit_image_type                       bitype           Yp              type of bit-image
       buffer_capacity                      bufsz            Ya              numbers of bytes
                                                                             buffered before
       buttons                              btns             BT              number of buttons on
       dot_horz_spacing                     spinh            Yc              spacing of dots hor‐
                                                                             izontally in dots
                                                                             per inch
       dot_vert_spacing                     spinv            Yb              spacing of pins ver‐
                                                                             tically in pins per
       max_micro_address                    maddr            Yd              maximum value in
       max_micro_jump                       mjump            Ye              maximum value in
       micro_col_size                       mcs              Yf              character step size
                                                                             when in micro mode
       micro_line_size                      mls              Yg              line step size when
                                                                             in micro mode
       number_of_pins                       npins            Yh              numbers of pins in
       output_res_char                      orc              Yi              horizontal resolu‐
                                                                             tion in units per
       output_res_horz_inch                 orhi             Yk              horizontal resolu‐
                                                                             tion in units per
       output_res_line                      orl              Yj              vertical resolution
                                                                             in units per line

       output_res_vert_inch                 orvi             Yl              vertical resolution
                                                                             in units per inch
       print_rate                           cps              Ym              print rate in char‐
                                                                             acters per second
       wide_char_size                       widcs            Yn              character step size
                                                                             when in double wide

       These are the string capabilities:

               Variable                     Cap-             TCap                Description
                String                      name             Code
       acs_chars                            acsc             ac              graphics charset
                                                                             pairs, based on
       back_tab                             cbt              bt              back tab (P)
       bell                                 bel              bl              audible signal
                                                                             (bell) (P)
       carriage_return                      cr               cr              carriage return (P*)
       change_char_pitch                    cpi              ZA              Change number of
                                                                             characters per inch
                                                                             to #1
       change_line_pitch                    lpi              ZB              Change number of
                                                                             lines per inch to #1
       change_res_horz                      chr              ZC              Change horizontal
                                                                             resolution to #1
       change_res_vert                      cvr              ZD              Change vertical res‐
                                                                             olution to #1
       change_scroll_region                 csr              cs              change region to
                                                                             line #1 to line #2
       char_padding                         rmp              rP              like ip but when in
                                                                             insert mode
       clear_all_tabs                       tbc              ct              clear all tab stops
       clear_margins                        mgc              MC              clear right and left
                                                                             soft margins
       clear_screen                         clear            cl              clear screen and
                                                                             home cursor (P*)
       clr_bol                              el1              cb              Clear to beginning
                                                                             of line
       clr_eol                              el               ce              clear to end of line
       clr_eos                              ed               cd              clear to end of
                                                                             screen (P*)
       column_address                       hpa              ch              horizontal position
                                                                             #1, absolute (P)
       command_character                    cmdch            CC              terminal settable
                                                                             cmd character in
                                                                             prototype !?
       create_window                        cwin             CW              define a window #1
                                                                             from #2,#3 to #4,#5
       cursor_address                       cup              cm              move to row #1 col‐
                                                                             umns #2
       cursor_down                          cud1             do              down one line
       cursor_home                          home             ho              home cursor (if no
       cursor_invisible                     civis            vi              make cursor invisi‐
       cursor_left                          cub1             le              move left one space
       cursor_mem_address                   mrcup            CM              memory relative cur‐
                                                                             sor addressing, move
                                                                             to row #1 columns #2

       cursor_normal                        cnorm            ve              make cursor appear
                                                                             normal (undo
       cursor_right                         cuf1             nd              non-destructive
                                                                             space (move right
                                                                             one space)
       cursor_to_ll                         ll               ll              last line, first
                                                                             column (if no cup)
       cursor_up                            cuu1             up              up one line
       cursor_visible                       cvvis            vs              make cursor very
       define_char                          defc             ZE              Define a character
                                                                             #1, #2 dots wide,
                                                                             descender #3
       delete_character                     dch1             dc              delete character
       delete_line                          dl1              dl              delete line (P*)
       dial_phone                           dial             DI              dial number #1
       dis_status_line                      dsl              ds              disable status line
       display_clock                        dclk             DK              display clock
       down_half_line                       hd               hd              half a line down
       ena_acs                              enacs            eA              enable alternate
                                                                             char set
       enter_alt_charset_mode               smacs            as              start alternate
                                                                             character set (P)
       enter_am_mode                        smam             SA              turn on automatic
       enter_blink_mode                     blink            mb              turn on blinking
       enter_bold_mode                      bold             md              turn on bold (extra
                                                                             bright) mode
       enter_ca_mode                        smcup            ti              string to start pro‐
                                                                             grams using cup
       enter_delete_mode                    smdc             dm              enter delete mode
       enter_dim_mode                       dim              mh              turn on half-bright
       enter_doublewide_mode                swidm            ZF              Enter double-wide
       enter_draft_quality                  sdrfq            ZG              Enter draft-quality
       enter_insert_mode                    smir             im              enter insert mode
       enter_italics_mode                   sitm             ZH              Enter italic mode
       enter_leftward_mode                  slm              ZI              Start leftward car‐
                                                                             riage motion
       enter_micro_mode                     smicm            ZJ              Start micro-motion
       enter_near_letter_quality            snlq             ZK              Enter NLQ mode
       enter_normal_quality                 snrmq            ZL              Enter normal-quality
       enter_protected_mode                 prot             mp              turn on protected
       enter_reverse_mode                   rev              mr              turn on reverse
                                                                             video mode
       enter_secure_mode                    invis            mk              turn on blank mode
                                                                             (characters invisi‐
       enter_shadow_mode                    sshm             ZM              Enter shadow-print
       enter_standout_mode                  smso             so              begin standout mode
       enter_subscript_mode                 ssubm            ZN              Enter subscript mode
       enter_superscript_mode               ssupm            ZO              Enter superscript
       enter_underline_mode                 smul             us              begin underline mode
       enter_upward_mode                    sum              ZP              Start upward car‐
                                                                             riage motion

       enter_xon_mode                       smxon            SX              turn on xon/xoff
       erase_chars                          ech              ec              erase #1 characters
       exit_alt_charset_mode                rmacs            ae              end alternate char‐
                                                                             acter set (P)
       exit_am_mode                         rmam             RA              turn off automatic
       exit_attribute_mode                  sgr0             me              turn off all
       exit_ca_mode                         rmcup            te              strings to end pro‐
                                                                             grams using cup
       exit_delete_mode                     rmdc             ed              end delete mode
       exit_doublewide_mode                 rwidm            ZQ              End double-wide mode
       exit_insert_mode                     rmir             ei              exit insert mode
       exit_italics_mode                    ritm             ZR              End italic mode
       exit_leftward_mode                   rlm              ZS              End left-motion mode
       exit_micro_mode                      rmicm            ZT              End micro-motion
       exit_shadow_mode                     rshm             ZU              End shadow-print
       exit_standout_mode                   rmso             se              exit standout mode
       exit_subscript_mode                  rsubm            ZV              End subscript mode
       exit_superscript_mode                rsupm            ZW              End superscript mode
       exit_underline_mode                  rmul             ue              exit underline mode
       exit_upward_mode                     rum              ZX              End reverse charac‐
                                                                             ter motion
       exit_xon_mode                        rmxon            RX              turn off xon/xoff
       fixed_pause                          pause            PA              pause for 2-3 sec‐
       flash_hook                           hook             fh              flash switch hook
       flash_screen                         flash            vb              visible bell (may
                                                                             not move cursor)
       form_feed                            ff               ff              hardcopy terminal
                                                                             page eject (P*)
       from_status_line                     fsl              fs              return from status
       goto_window                          wingo            WG              go to window #1
       hangup                               hup              HU              hang-up phone
       init_1string                         is1              i1              initialization
       init_2string                         is2              is              initialization
       init_3string                         is3              i3              initialization
       init_file                            if               if              name of initializa‐
                                                                             tion file
       init_prog                            iprog            iP              path name of program
                                                                             for initialization
       initialize_color                     initc            Ic              initialize color #1
                                                                             to (#2,#3,#4)
       initialize_pair                      initp            Ip              Initialize color
                                                                             pair #1 to
       insert_character                     ich1             ic              insert character (P)
       insert_line                          il1              al              insert line (P*)
       insert_padding                       ip               ip              insert padding after
                                                                             inserted character
       key_a1                               ka1              K1              upper left of keypad
       key_a3                               ka3              K3              upper right of key‐
       key_b2                               kb2              K2              center of keypad
       key_backspace                        kbs              kb              backspace key

       key_beg                              kbeg             @1              begin key
       key_btab                             kcbt             kB              back-tab key
       key_c1                               kc1              K4              lower left of keypad
       key_c3                               kc3              K5              lower right of key‐
       key_cancel                           kcan             @2              cancel key
       key_catab                            ktbc             ka              clear-all-tabs key
       key_clear                            kclr             kC              clear-screen or
                                                                             erase key
       key_close                            kclo             @3              close key
       key_command                          kcmd             @4              command key
       key_copy                             kcpy             @5              copy key
       key_create                           kcrt             @6              create key
       key_ctab                             kctab            kt              clear-tab key
       key_dc                               kdch1            kD              delete-character key
       key_dl                               kdl1             kL              delete-line key
       key_down                             kcud1            kd              down-arrow key
       key_eic                              krmir            kM              sent by rmir or smir
                                                                             in insert mode
       key_end                              kend             @7              end key
       key_enter                            kent             @8              enter/send key
       key_eol                              kel              kE              clear-to-end-of-line
       key_eos                              ked              kS              clear-to-end-of-
                                                                             screen key
       key_exit                             kext             @9              exit key
       key_f0                               kf0              k0              F0 function key
       key_f1                               kf1              k1              F1 function key
       key_f10                              kf10             k;              F10 function key
       key_f11                              kf11             F1              F11 function key
       key_f12                              kf12             F2              F12 function key
       key_f13                              kf13             F3              F13 function key
       key_f14                              kf14             F4              F14 function key
       key_f15                              kf15             F5              F15 function key
       key_f16                              kf16             F6              F16 function key
       key_f17                              kf17             F7              F17 function key
       key_f18                              kf18             F8              F18 function key
       key_f19                              kf19             F9              F19 function key
       key_f2                               kf2              k2              F2 function key
       key_f20                              kf20             FA              F20 function key
       key_f21                              kf21             FB              F21 function key
       key_f22                              kf22             FC              F22 function key
       key_f23                              kf23             FD              F23 function key
       key_f24                              kf24             FE              F24 function key
       key_f25                              kf25             FF              F25 function key
       key_f26                              kf26             FG              F26 function key
       key_f27                              kf27             FH              F27 function key
       key_f28                              kf28             FI              F28 function key
       key_f29                              kf29             FJ              F29 function key
       key_f3                               kf3              k3              F3 function key
       key_f30                              kf30             FK              F30 function key
       key_f31                              kf31             FL              F31 function key
       key_f32                              kf32             FM              F32 function key
       key_f33                              kf33             FN              F33 function key
       key_f34                              kf34             FO              F34 function key
       key_f35                              kf35             FP              F35 function key
       key_f36                              kf36             FQ              F36 function key
       key_f37                              kf37             FR              F37 function key
       key_f38                              kf38             FS              F38 function key
       key_f39                              kf39             FT              F39 function key
       key_f4                               kf4              k4              F4 function key
       key_f40                              kf40             FU              F40 function key
       key_f41                              kf41             FV              F41 function key
       key_f42                              kf42             FW              F42 function key
       key_f43                              kf43             FX              F43 function key

       key_f44                              kf44             FY              F44 function key
       key_f45                              kf45             FZ              F45 function key
       key_f46                              kf46             Fa              F46 function key
       key_f47                              kf47             Fb              F47 function key
       key_f48                              kf48             Fc              F48 function key
       key_f49                              kf49             Fd              F49 function key
       key_f5                               kf5              k5              F5 function key
       key_f50                              kf50             Fe              F50 function key
       key_f51                              kf51             Ff              F51 function key
       key_f52                              kf52             Fg              F52 function key
       key_f53                              kf53             Fh              F53 function key
       key_f54                              kf54             Fi              F54 function key
       key_f55                              kf55             Fj              F55 function key
       key_f56                              kf56             Fk              F56 function key
       key_f57                              kf57             Fl              F57 function key
       key_f58                              kf58             Fm              F58 function key
       key_f59                              kf59             Fn              F59 function key
       key_f6                               kf6              k6              F6 function key
       key_f60                              kf60             Fo              F60 function key
       key_f61                              kf61             Fp              F61 function key
       key_f62                              kf62             Fq              F62 function key
       key_f63                              kf63             Fr              F63 function key
       key_f7                               kf7              k7              F7 function key
       key_f8                               kf8              k8              F8 function key
       key_f9                               kf9              k9              F9 function key
       key_find                             kfnd             @0              find key
       key_help                             khlp             %1              help key
       key_home                             khome            kh              home key
       key_ic                               kich1            kI              insert-character key
       key_il                               kil1             kA              insert-line key
       key_left                             kcub1            kl              left-arrow key
       key_ll                               kll              kH              lower-left key (home
       key_mark                             kmrk             %2              mark key
       key_message                          kmsg             %3              message key
       key_move                             kmov             %4              move key
       key_next                             knxt             %5              next key
       key_npage                            knp              kN              next-page key
       key_open                             kopn             %6              open key
       key_options                          kopt             %7              options key
       key_ppage                            kpp              kP              previous-page key
       key_previous                         kprv             %8              previous key
       key_print                            kprt             %9              print key
       key_redo                             krdo             %0              redo key
       key_reference                        kref             &1              reference key
       key_refresh                          krfr             &2              refresh key
       key_replace                          krpl             &3              replace key
       key_restart                          krst             &4              restart key
       key_resume                           kres             &5              resume key
       key_right                            kcuf1            kr              right-arrow key
       key_save                             ksav             &6              save key
       key_sbeg                             kBEG             &9              shifted begin key
       key_scancel                          kCAN             &0              shifted cancel key
       key_scommand                         kCMD             *1              shifted command key
       key_scopy                            kCPY             *2              shifted copy key
       key_screate                          kCRT             *3              shifted create key
       key_sdc                              kDC              *4              shifted delete-char‐
                                                                             acter key
       key_sdl                              kDL              *5              shifted delete-line
       key_select                           kslt             *6              select key
       key_send                             kEND             *7              shifted end key
       key_seol                             kEOL             *8              shifted clear-to-
                                                                             end-of-line key
       key_sexit                            kEXT             *9              shifted exit key

       key_sf                               kind             kF              scroll-forward key
       key_sfind                            kFND             *0              shifted find key
       key_shelp                            kHLP             #1              shifted help key
       key_shome                            kHOM             #2              shifted home key
       key_sic                              kIC              #3              shifted insert-char‐
                                                                             acter key
       key_sleft                            kLFT             #4              shifted left-arrow
       key_smessage                         kMSG             %a              shifted message key
       key_smove                            kMOV             %b              shifted move key
       key_snext                            kNXT             %c              shifted next key
       key_soptions                         kOPT             %d              shifted options key
       key_sprevious                        kPRV             %e              shifted previous key
       key_sprint                           kPRT             %f              shifted print key
       key_sr                               kri              kR              scroll-backward key
       key_sredo                            kRDO             %g              shifted redo key
       key_sreplace                         kRPL             %h              shifted replace key
       key_sright                           kRIT             %i              shifted right-arrow
       key_srsume                           kRES             %j              shifted resume key
       key_ssave                            kSAV             !1              shifted save key
       key_ssuspend                         kSPD             !2              shifted suspend key
       key_stab                             khts             kT              set-tab key
       key_sundo                            kUND             !3              shifted undo key
       key_suspend                          kspd             &7              suspend key
       key_undo                             kund             &8              undo key
       key_up                               kcuu1            ku              up-arrow key
       keypad_local                         rmkx             ke              leave 'key‐
                                                                             board_transmit' mode
       keypad_xmit                          smkx             ks              enter 'key‐
                                                                             board_transmit' mode
       lab_f0                               lf0              l0              label on function
                                                                             key f0 if not f0
       lab_f1                               lf1              l1              label on function
                                                                             key f1 if not f1
       lab_f10                              lf10             la              label on function
                                                                             key f10 if not f10
       lab_f2                               lf2              l2              label on function
                                                                             key f2 if not f2
       lab_f3                               lf3              l3              label on function
                                                                             key f3 if not f3
       lab_f4                               lf4              l4              label on function
                                                                             key f4 if not f4
       lab_f5                               lf5              l5              label on function
                                                                             key f5 if not f5
       lab_f6                               lf6              l6              label on function
                                                                             key f6 if not f6
       lab_f7                               lf7              l7              label on function
                                                                             key f7 if not f7
       lab_f8                               lf8              l8              label on function
                                                                             key f8 if not f8
       lab_f9                               lf9              l9              label on function
                                                                             key f9 if not f9
       label_format                         fln              Lf              label format
       label_off                            rmln             LF              turn off soft labels
       label_on                             smln             LO              turn on soft labels
       meta_off                             rmm              mo              turn off meta mode
       meta_on                              smm              mm              turn on meta mode
                                                                             (8th-bit on)
       micro_column_address                 mhpa             ZY              Like column_address
                                                                             in micro mode
       micro_down                           mcud1            ZZ              Like cursor_down in
                                                                             micro mode
       micro_left                           mcub1            Za              Like cursor_left in
                                                                             micro mode

       micro_right                          mcuf1            Zb              Like cursor_right in
                                                                             micro mode
       micro_row_address                    mvpa             Zc              Like row_address #1
                                                                             in micro mode
       micro_up                             mcuu1            Zd              Like cursor_up in
                                                                             micro mode
       newline                              nel              nw              newline (behave like
                                                                             cr followed by lf)
       order_of_pins                        porder           Ze              Match software bits
                                                                             to print-head pins
       orig_colors                          oc               oc              Set all color pairs
                                                                             to the original ones
       orig_pair                            op               op              Set default pair to
                                                                             its original value
       pad_char                             pad              pc              padding char
                                                                             (instead of null)
       parm_dch                             dch              DC              delete #1 characters
       parm_delete_line                     dl               DL              delete #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_cursor                     cud              DO              down #1 lines (P*)
       parm_down_micro                      mcud             Zf              Like parm_down_cur‐
                                                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_ich                             ich              IC              insert #1 characters
       parm_index                           indn             SF              scroll forward #1
                                                                             lines (P)
       parm_insert_line                     il               AL              insert #1 lines (P*)
       parm_left_cursor                     cub              LE              move #1 characters
                                                                             to the left (P)
       parm_left_micro                      mcub             Zg              Like parm_left_cur‐
                                                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_right_cursor                    cuf              RI              move #1 characters
                                                                             to the right (P*)
       parm_right_micro                     mcuf             Zh              Like parm_right_cur‐
                                                                             sor in micro mode
       parm_rindex                          rin              SR              scroll back #1 lines
       parm_up_cursor                       cuu              UP              up #1 lines (P*)
       parm_up_micro                        mcuu             Zi              Like parm_up_cursor
                                                                             in micro mode
       pkey_key                             pfkey            pk              program function key
                                                                             #1 to type string #2
       pkey_local                           pfloc            pl              program function key
                                                                             #1 to execute string
       pkey_xmit                            pfx              px              program function key
                                                                             #1 to transmit
                                                                             string #2
       plab_norm                            pln              pn              program label #1 to
                                                                             show string #2
       print_screen                         mc0              ps              print contents of
       prtr_non                             mc5p             pO              turn on printer for
                                                                             #1 bytes
       prtr_off                             mc4              pf              turn off printer
       prtr_on                              mc5              po              turn on printer
       pulse                                pulse            PU              select pulse dialing
       quick_dial                           qdial            QD              dial number #1 with‐
                                                                             out checking
       remove_clock                         rmclk            RC              remove clock
       repeat_char                          rep              rp              repeat char #1 #2
                                                                             times (P*)
       req_for_input                        rfi              RF              send next input char
                                                                             (for ptys)
       reset_1string                        rs1              r1              reset string

       reset_2string                        rs2              r2              reset string
       reset_3string                        rs3              r3              reset string
       reset_file                           rf               rf              name of reset file
       restore_cursor                       rc               rc              restore cursor to
                                                                             position of last
       row_address                          vpa              cv              vertical position #1
                                                                             absolute (P)
       save_cursor                          sc               sc              save current cursor
                                                                             position (P)
       scroll_forward                       ind              sf              scroll text up (P)
       scroll_reverse                       ri               sr              scroll text down (P)
       select_char_set                      scs              Zj              Select character
                                                                             set, #1
       set_attributes                       sgr              sa              define video
                                                                             attributes #1-#9
       set_background                       setb             Sb              Set background color
       set_bottom_margin                    smgb             Zk              Set bottom margin at
                                                                             current line
       set_bottom_margin_parm               smgbp            Zl              Set bottom margin at
                                                                             line #1 or (if smgtp
                                                                             is not given) #2
                                                                             lines from bottom
       set_clock                            sclk             SC              set clock, #1 hrs #2
                                                                             mins #3 secs
       set_color_pair                       scp              sp              Set current color
                                                                             pair to #1
       set_foreground                       setf             Sf              Set foreground color
       set_left_margin                      smgl             ML              set left soft margin
                                                                             at current col‐
                                                                             umn.      See smgl.
                                                                             (ML is not in BSD
       set_left_margin_parm                 smglp            Zm              Set left (right)
                                                                             margin at column #1
       set_right_margin                     smgr             MR              set right soft mar‐
                                                                             gin at current col‐
       set_right_margin_parm                smgrp            Zn              Set right margin at
                                                                             column #1
       set_tab                              hts              st              set a tab in every
                                                                             row, current columns
       set_top_margin                       smgt             Zo              Set top margin at
                                                                             current line
       set_top_margin_parm                  smgtp            Zp              Set top (bottom)
                                                                             margin at row #1
       set_window                           wind             wi              current window is
                                                                             lines #1-#2 cols
       start_bit_image                      sbim             Zq              Start printing bit
                                                                             image graphics
       start_char_set_def                   scsd             Zr              Start character set
                                                                             definition #1, with
                                                                             #2 characters in the
       stop_bit_image                       rbim             Zs              Stop printing bit
                                                                             image graphics
       stop_char_set_def                    rcsd             Zt              End definition of
                                                                             character set #1
       subscript_characters                 subcs            Zu              List of subscript‐
                                                                             able characters

       superscript_characters               supcs            Zv              List of superscript‐
                                                                             able characters
       tab                                  ht               ta              tab to next 8-space
                                                                             hardware tab stop
       these_cause_cr                       docr             Zw              Printing any of
                                                                             these characters
                                                                             causes CR
       to_status_line                       tsl              ts              move to status line,
                                                                             column #1
       tone                                 tone             TO              select touch tone
       underline_char                       uc               uc              underline char and
                                                                             move past it
       up_half_line                         hu               hu              half a line up
       user0                                u0               u0              User string #0
       user1                                u1               u1              User string #1
       user2                                u2               u2              User string #2
       user3                                u3               u3              User string #3
       user4                                u4               u4              User string #4
       user5                                u5               u5              User string #5
       user6                                u6               u6              User string #6
       user7                                u7               u7              User string #7
       user8                                u8               u8              User string #8
       user9                                u9               u9              User string #9
       wait_tone                            wait             WA              wait for dial-tone
       xoff_character                       xoffc            XF              XOFF character
       xon_character                        xonc             XN              XON character
       zero_motion                          zerom            Zx              No motion for subse‐
                                                                             quent character

       The following string capabilities are present in the SVr4.0 term structure, but were orig‐
       inally not documented in the man page.

               Variable                     Cap-               TCap               Description
                String                      name               Code
       alt_scancode_esc                     scesa              S8              Alternate escape
                                                                               for scancode emu‐
       bit_image_carriage_return            bicr               Yv              Move to beginning
                                                                               of same row
       bit_image_newline                    binel              Zz              Move to next row
                                                                               of the bit image
       bit_image_repeat                     birep              Xy              Repeat bit image
                                                                               cell #1 #2 times
       char_set_names                       csnm               Zy              Produce #1'th item
                                                                               from list of char‐
                                                                               acter set names
       code_set_init                        csin               ci              Init sequence for
                                                                               multiple codesets
       color_names                          colornm            Yw              Give name for
                                                                               color #1
       define_bit_image_region              defbi              Yx              Define rectan‐
                                                                               gualar bit image
       device_type                          devt               dv              Indicate lan‐
                                                                               guage/codeset sup‐
       display_pc_char                      dispc              S1              Display PC charac‐
                                                                               ter #1
       end_bit_image_region                 endbi              Yy              End a bit-image
       enter_pc_charset_mode                smpch              S2              Enter PC character
                                                                               display mode

       enter_scancode_mode                  smsc               S4              Enter PC scancode
       exit_pc_charset_mode                 rmpch              S3              Exit PC character
                                                                               display mode
       exit_scancode_mode                   rmsc               S5              Exit PC scancode
       get_mouse                            getm               Gm              Curses should get
                                                                               button events,
                                                                               parameter #1 not
       key_mouse                            kmous              Km              Mouse event has
       mouse_info                           minfo              Mi              Mouse status
       pc_term_options                      pctrm              S6              PC terminal
       pkey_plab                            pfxl               xl              Program function
                                                                               key #1 to type
                                                                               string #2 and show
                                                                               string #3
       req_mouse_pos                        reqmp              RQ              Request mouse
       scancode_escape                      scesc              S7              Escape for scan‐
                                                                               code emulation
       set0_des_seq                         s0ds               s0              Shift to codeset 0
                                                                               (EUC set 0, ASCII)
       set1_des_seq                         s1ds               s1              Shift to codeset 1
       set2_des_seq                         s2ds               s2              Shift to codeset 2
       set3_des_seq                         s3ds               s3              Shift to codeset 3
       set_a_background                     setab              AB              Set background
                                                                               color to #1, using
                                                                               ANSI escape
       set_a_foreground                     setaf              AF              Set foreground
                                                                               color to #1, using
                                                                               ANSI escape
       set_color_band                       setcolor           Yz              Change to ribbon
                                                                               color #1
       set_lr_margin                        smglr              ML              Set both left and
                                                                               right margins to
                                                                               #1, #2.  (ML is
                                                                               not in BSD term‐
       set_page_length                      slines             YZ              Set page length to
                                                                               #1 lines
       set_tb_margin                        smgtb              MT              Sets both top and
                                                                               bottom margins to
                                                                               #1, #2

        The XSI Curses standard added these  hardcopy  capabilities.   They  were  used  in  some
        post-4.1 versions of System V curses, e.g., Solaris 2.5 and IRIX 6.x.  Except for YI, the
        ncurses termcap names for them are invented.  According to the XSI Curses standard,  they
        have  no  termcap  names.   If  your compiled terminfo entries use these, they may not be
        binary-compatible with System V terminfo entries after SVr4.1; beware!

                Variable                    Cap-              TCap               Description
                 String                     name              Code
        enter_horizontal_hl_mode            ehhlm             Xh             Enter horizontal
                                                                             highlight mode
        enter_left_hl_mode                  elhlm             Xl             Enter left highlight
        enter_low_hl_mode                   elohlm            Xo             Enter low highlight
        enter_right_hl_mode                 erhlm             Xr             Enter right high‐
                                                                             light mode

        enter_top_hl_mode                   ethlm             Xt             Enter top highlight
        enter_vertical_hl_mode              evhlm             Xv             Enter vertical high‐
                                                                             light mode
        set_a_attributes                    sgr1              sA             Define second set of
                                                                             video attributes
        set_pglen_inch                      slength           YI             Set page length to
                                                                             #1 hundredth of an
                                                                             inch (some implemen‐
                                                                             tations use sL for

   User-Defined Capabilities
       The preceding section listed the predefined capabilities.  They  deal  with  some  special
       features  for  terminals  no  longer (or possibly never) produced.  Occasionally there are
       special features of newer terminals which  are  awkward  or  impossible  to  represent  by
       reusing the predefined capabilities.

       ncurses  addresses  this  limitation  by  allowing user-defined capabilities.  The tic and
       infocmp programs provide the -x option for this purpose.   When  -x  is  set,  tic  treats
       unknown  capabilities as user-defined.  That is, if tic encounters a capability name which
       it does not recognize, it infers its type (boolean, number or string) from the syntax  and
       makes  an extended table entry for that capability.  The use_extended_names function makes
       this information conditionally available to applications.  The  ncurses  library  provides
       the data leaving most of the behavior to applications:

       ·   User-defined  capability  strings  whose  name begins with “k” are treated as function

       ·   The types (boolean, number, string) determined by tic can be  inferred  by  successful
           calls on tigetflag, etc.

       ·   If  the capability name happens to be two characters, the capability is also available
           through the termcap interface.

       While termcap is said to be extensible because it does not use a predefined set  of  capa‐
       bilities,  in  practice it has been limited to the capabilities defined by terminfo imple‐
       mentations.  As a rule, user-defined capabilities intended for use by termcap applications
       should  be  limited  to  booleans  and  numbers  to avoid running past the 1023 byte limit
       assumed by termcap implementations  and  their  applications.   In  particular,  providing
       extended sets of function keys (past the 60 numbered keys and the handful of special named
       keys) is best done using the longer names available using terminfo.

   A Sample Entry
       The following entry, describing an ANSI-standard terminal, is  representative  of  what  a
       terminfo entry for a modern terminal typically looks like.

       ansi|ansi/pc-term compatible with color,
               am, mc5i, mir, msgr,
               colors#8, cols#80, it#8, lines#24, ncv#3, pairs#64,
               bel=^G, blink=\E[5m, bold=\E[1m, cbt=\E[Z, clear=\E[H\E[J,
               cr=^M, cub=\E[%p1%dD, cub1=\E[D, cud=\E[%p1%dB, cud1=\E[B,
               cuf=\E[%p1%dC, cuf1=\E[C, cup=\E[%i%p1%d;%p2%dH,
               cuu=\E[%p1%dA, cuu1=\E[A, dch=\E[%p1%dP, dch1=\E[P,
               dl=\E[%p1%dM, dl1=\E[M, ech=\E[%p1%dX, ed=\E[J, el=\E[K,
               el1=\E[1K, home=\E[H, hpa=\E[%i%p1%dG, ht=\E[I, hts=\EH,
               ich=\E[%p1%d@, il=\E[%p1%dL, il1=\E[L, ind=^J,
               indn=\E[%p1%dS, invis=\E[8m, kbs=^H, kcbt=\E[Z, kcub1=\E[D,
               kcud1=\E[B, kcuf1=\E[C, kcuu1=\E[A, khome=\E[H, kich1=\E[L,
               mc4=\E[4i, mc5=\E[5i, nel=\r\E[S, op=\E[39;49m,
               rep=%p1%c\E[%p2%{1}%-%db, rev=\E[7m, rin=\E[%p1%dT,
               rmacs=\E[10m, rmpch=\E[10m, rmso=\E[m, rmul=\E[m,
               s0ds=\E(B, s1ds=\E)B, s2ds=\E*B, s3ds=\E+B,
               setab=\E[4%p1%dm, setaf=\E[3%p1%dm,
               sgr0=\E[0;10m, smacs=\E[11m, smpch=\E[11m, smso=\E[7m,
               smul=\E[4m, tbc=\E[3g, u6=\E[%i%d;%dR, u7=\E[6n,
               u8=\E[?%[;0123456789]c, u9=\E[c, vpa=\E[%i%p1%dd,

       Entries  may  continue onto multiple lines by placing white space at the beginning of each
       line except the first.  Comments may be included on lines beginning with  “#”.   Capabili‐
       ties in terminfo are of three types:

       ·   Boolean capabilities which indicate that the terminal has some particular feature,

       ·   numeric capabilities giving the size of the terminal or the size of particular delays,

       ·   string capabilities, which give a sequence which can be  used  to  perform  particular
           terminal operations.

   Types of Capabilities
       All  capabilities  have  names.   For instance, the fact that ANSI-standard terminals have
       automatic margins (i.e., an automatic return and line-feed when  the  end  of  a  line  is
       reached)  is  indicated  by the capability am.  Hence the description of ansi includes am.
       Numeric capabilities are followed by the character “#” and then a  positive  value.   Thus
       cols,  which  indicates  the  number of columns the terminal has, gives the value “80” for
       ansi.  Values for numeric capabilities may be specified in decimal, octal or  hexadecimal,
       using the C programming language conventions (e.g., 255, 0377 and 0xff or 0xFF).

       Finally,  string valued capabilities, such as el (clear to end of line sequence) are given
       by the two-character code, an “=”, and then a string ending at the next following “,”.

       A number of escape sequences are provided in  the  string  valued  capabilities  for  easy
       encoding  of  characters  there.   Both \E and \e map to an ESCAPE character, ^x maps to a
       control-x for any appropriate x, and the sequences \n \l \r \t \b \f \s  give  a  newline,
       line-feed, return, tab, backspace, form-feed, and space.  Other escapes include

       ·   \^ for ^,

       ·   \\ for \,

       ·   \, for comma,

       ·   \: for :,

       ·   and \0 for null.

           \0  will produce \200, which does not terminate a string but behaves as a null charac‐
           ter on most terminals, providing CS7 is specified.  See stty(1).

           The reason for this quirk is to maintain binary compatibility of the compiled terminfo
           files  with  other implementations, e.g., the SVr4 systems, which document this.  Com‐
           piled terminfo files use null-terminated strings, with  no  lengths.   Modifying  this
           would require a new binary format, which would not work with other implementations.

       Finally, characters may be given as three octal digits after a \.

       A  delay  in  milliseconds  may  appear anywhere in a string capability, enclosed in $<..>
       brackets, as in el=\EK$<5>, and padding characters are supplied by tputs to  provide  this
       delay.   The delay must be a number with at most one decimal place of precision; it may be
       followed by suffixes “*” or “/” or both.  A “*” indicates that  the  padding  required  is
       proportional to the number of lines affected by the operation, and the amount given is the
       per-affected-unit padding required.  (In the case of insert character, the factor is still
       the  number  of  lines affected.)  Normally, padding is advisory if the device has the xon
       capability; it is used for cost computation but does not trigger  delays.   A  “/”  suffix
       indicates  that  the  padding  is mandatory and forces a delay of the given number of mil‐
       liseconds even on devices for which xon is present to indicate flow control.

       Sometimes individual capabilities must be commented out.  To do this, put a period  before
       the capability name.  For example, see the second ind in the example above.

   Fetching Compiled Descriptions
       The  ncurses  library  searches for terminal descriptions in several places.  It uses only
       the first description found.  The library has a compiled-in list of places to search which
       can be overridden by environment variables.  Before starting to search, ncurses eliminates
       duplicates in its search list.

       ·   If the environment variable TERMINFO is set, it is interpreted as the  pathname  of  a
           directory containing the compiled description you are working on.  Only that directory
           is searched.

       ·   If TERMINFO is not set, ncurses will instead look in the directory $HOME/.terminfo for
           a compiled description.

       ·   Next,  if  the  environment  variable TERMINFO_DIRS is set, ncurses will interpret the
           contents of that variable as a list of colon-separated directories (or database files)
           to be searched.

           An  empty  directory  name (i.e., if the variable begins or ends with a colon, or con‐
           tains adacent colons) is interpreted as the system location /etc/terminfo.

       ·   Finally, ncurses searches these compiled-in locations:

           ·   a list of directories (no default value), and

           ·   the system terminfo directory, /etc/terminfo (the compiled-in default).

   Preparing Descriptions
       We now outline how to prepare descriptions of terminals.  The most effective way  to  pre‐
       pare  a terminal description is by imitating the description of a similar terminal in ter‐
       minfo and to build up a description gradually, using partial descriptions with vi or  some
       other  screen-oriented  program  to  check  that  they  are correct.  Be aware that a very
       unusual terminal may expose deficiencies in the ability of the terminfo file  to  describe
       it or bugs in the screen-handling code of the test program.

       To  get  the  padding for insert line right (if the terminal manufacturer did not document
       it) a severe test is to edit a large file at 9600 baud, delete 16 or  so  lines  from  the
       middle  of the screen, then hit the “u” key several times quickly.  If the terminal messes
       up, more padding is usually needed.  A similar test can be used for insert character.

   Basic Capabilities
       The number of columns on each line for the terminal is given by the cols numeric  capabil‐
       ity.   If  the  terminal  is a CRT, then the number of lines on the screen is given by the
       lines capability.  If the terminal wraps around to the beginning of the next line when  it
       reaches  the  right  margin,  then  it should have the am capability.  If the terminal can
       clear its screen, leaving the cursor in the home position, then this is given by the clear
       string  capability.   If  the terminal overstrikes (rather than clearing a position when a
       character is struck over) then it should have the os capability.  If  the  terminal  is  a
       printing terminal, with no soft copy unit, give it both hc and os.  (os applies to storage
       scope terminals, such as TEKTRONIX 4010 series, as well as hard copy and  APL  terminals.)
       If  there  is  a code to move the cursor to the left edge of the current row, give this as
       cr.  (Normally this will be carriage return, control M.)  If there is a code to produce an
       audible signal (bell, beep, etc) give this as bel.

       If  there  is  a code to move the cursor one position to the left (such as backspace) that
       capability should be given as cub1.  Similarly, codes to move to the right, up,  and  down
       should  be given as cuf1, cuu1, and cud1.  These local cursor motions should not alter the
       text they pass over, for example, you would not normally use “cuf1= ”  because  the  space
       would erase the character moved over.

       A very important point here is that the local cursor motions encoded in terminfo are unde‐
       fined at the left and top edges of a CRT  terminal.   Programs  should  never  attempt  to
       backspace around the left edge, unless bw is given, and never attempt to go up locally off
       the top.  In order to scroll text up, a program will go to the bottom left corner  of  the
       screen and send the ind (index) string.

       To  scroll text down, a program goes to the top left corner of the screen and sends the ri
       (reverse index) string.  The strings ind and ri are undefined when not on their respective
       corners of the screen.

       Parameterized  versions  of  the  scrolling sequences are indn and rin which have the same
       semantics as ind and ri except that they take one parameter, and scroll that  many  lines.
       They are also undefined except at the appropriate edge of the screen.

       The  am  capability  tells  whether the cursor sticks at the right edge of the screen when
       text is output, but this does not necessarily apply to a cuf1 from the last  column.   The
       only  local motion which is defined from the left edge is if bw is given, then a cub1 from
       the left edge will move to the right edge of the previous row.  If bw is  not  given,  the
       effect  is undefined.  This is useful for drawing a box around the edge of the screen, for
       example.  If the terminal has switch selectable automatic margins, the terminfo file  usu‐
       ally  assumes that this is on; i.e., am.  If the terminal has a command which moves to the
       first column of the next line, that command can be given as nel (newline).   It  does  not
       matter  if the command clears the remainder of the current line, so if the terminal has no
       cr and lf it may still be possible to craft a working nel out of one or both of them.

       These capabilities suffice to describe hard-copy  and  “glass-tty”  terminals.   Thus  the
       model 33 teletype is described as

       33|tty33|tty|model 33 teletype,
               bel=^G, cols#72, cr=^M, cud1=^J, hc, ind=^J, os,

       while the Lear Siegler ADM-3 is described as

       adm3|3|lsi adm3,
               am, bel=^G, clear=^Z, cols#80, cr=^M, cub1=^H, cud1=^J,
               ind=^J, lines#24,

   Parameterized Strings
       Cursor  addressing and other strings requiring parameters in the terminal are described by
       a parameterized string capability, with printf-like escapes such as %x in it.   For  exam‐
       ple, to address the cursor, the cup capability is given, using two parameters: the row and
       column to address to.  (Rows and columns are numbered from zero and refer to the  physical
       screen  visible  to the user, not to any unseen memory.)  If the terminal has memory rela‐
       tive cursor addressing, that can be indicated by mrcup.

       The parameter mechanism uses a stack and special % codes to manipulate  it.   Typically  a
       sequence  will push one of the parameters onto the stack and then print it in some format.
       Print (e.g., "%d") is a special case.  Other operations, including "%t" pop their  operand
       from  the  stack.   It is noted that more complex operations are often necessary, e.g., in
       the sgr string.

       The % encodings have the following meanings:

       %%   outputs “%”

            as in printf, flags are [-+#] and space.  Use a “:” to allow the next character to be
            a “-” flag, avoiding interpreting "%-" as an operator.

       %c   print pop() like %c in printf

       %s   print pop() like %s in printf

            push i'th parameter

            set dynamic variable [a-z] to pop()

            get dynamic variable [a-z] and push it

            set static variable [a-z] to pop()

            get static variable [a-z] and push it

            The  terms "static" and "dynamic" are misleading.  Historically, these are simply two
            different sets of variables, whose values are not reset between calls to tparm.  How‐
            ever,  that  fact  is  not  documented  in other implementations.  Relying on it will
            adversely impact portability to other implementations.

       %'c' char constant c

            integer constant nn

       %l   push strlen(pop)

       %+, %-, %*, %/, %m
            arithmetic (%m is mod): push(pop() op pop())

       %&, %|, %^
            bit operations (AND, OR and exclusive-OR): push(pop() op pop())

       %=, %>, %<
            logical operations: push(pop() op pop())

       %A, %O
            logical AND and OR operations (for conditionals)

       %!, %~
            unary operations (logical and bit complement): push(op pop())

       %i   add 1 to first two parameters (for ANSI terminals)

       %? expr %t thenpart %e elsepart %;
            This forms an if-then-else.  The %e elsepart is optional.  Usually the %?  expr  part
            pushes  a  value  onto  the  stack,  and  %t pops it from the stack, testing if it is
            nonzero (true).  If it is zero (false), control passes to the %e (else) part.

            It is possible to form else-if's a la Algol 68:
            %? c1 %t b1 %e c2 %t b2 %e c3 %t b3 %e c4 %t b4 %e %;

            where ci are conditions, bi are bodies.

            Use the -f option of tic or infocmp to see the  structure  of  if-then-else's.   Some
            strings,  e.g.,  sgr can be very complicated when written on one line.  The -f option
            splits the string into lines with the parts indented.

       Binary operations are in postfix form with the operands in the usual order.  That  is,  to
       get  x-5  one  would  use  "%gx%{5}%-".  %P and %g variables are persistent across escape-
       string evaluations.

       Consider the HP2645, which, to get to row 3 and column 12, needs  to  be  sent  \E&a12c03Y
       padded  for 6 milliseconds.  Note that the order of the rows and columns is inverted here,
       and that the row and column are printed  as  two  digits.   Thus  its  cup  capability  is

       The  Microterm ACT-IV needs the current row and column sent preceded by a ^T, with the row
       and column simply encoded in binary, “cup=^T%p1%c%p2%c”.  Terminals which use “%c” need to
       be  able  to backspace the cursor (cub1), and to move the cursor up one line on the screen
       (cuu1).  This is necessary because it is not always safe to transmit \n ^D and \r, as  the
       system  may  change  or discard them.  (The library routines dealing with terminfo set tty
       modes so that tabs are never expanded, so \t is safe to send.  This turns out to be essen‐
       tial for the Ann Arbor 4080.)

       A  final example is the LSI ADM-3a, which uses row and column offset by a blank character,
       thus “cup=\E=%p1%' '%+%c%p2%' '%+%c”.  After sending “\E=”, this pushes the first  parame‐
       ter,  pushes  the ASCII value for a space (32), adds them (pushing the sum on the stack in
       place of the two previous values) and outputs that value as a character.  Then the same is
       done for the second parameter.  More complex arithmetic is possible using the stack.

   Cursor Motions
       If  the  terminal  has a fast way to home the cursor (to very upper left corner of screen)
       then this can be given as home; similarly a fast way of getting  to  the  lower  left-hand
       corner can be given as ll; this may involve going up with cuu1 from the home position, but
       a program should never do this itself (unless ll does) because it can make  no  assumption
       about  the effect of moving up from the home position.  Note that the home position is the
       same as addressing to (0,0): to the top left corner of the screen, not of memory.   (Thus,
       the \EH sequence on HP terminals cannot be used for home.)

       If the terminal has row or column absolute cursor addressing, these can be given as single
       parameter capabilities hpa (horizontal position absolute) and vpa (vertical position abso‐
       lute).   Sometimes these are shorter than the more general two parameter sequence (as with
       the hp2645) and can be used in preference  to  cup.   If  there  are  parameterized  local
       motions  (e.g.,  move  n spaces to the right) these can be given as cud, cub, cuf, and cuu
       with a single parameter indicating how many spaces to move.  These are primarily useful if
       the terminal does not have cup, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025.

       If the terminal needs to be in a special mode when running a program that uses these capa‐
       bilities, the codes to enter and exit this mode can be given as  smcup  and  rmcup.   This
       arises,  for  example,  from terminals like the Concept with more than one page of memory.
       If the terminal has only memory relative cursor addressing and not screen relative  cursor
       addressing,  a one screen-sized window must be fixed into the terminal for cursor address‐
       ing to work properly.  This is also used for the TEKTRONIX 4025, where smcup sets the com‐
       mand character to be the one used by terminfo.  If the smcup sequence will not restore the
       screen after an rmcup sequence is output (to the state prior to outputting rmcup), specify

   Area Clears
       If  the  terminal  can clear from the current position to the end of the line, leaving the
       cursor where it is, this should be given as el.  If the terminal can clear from the begin‐
       ning  of  the line to the current position inclusive, leaving the cursor where it is, this
       should be given as el1.  If the terminal can clear from the current position to the end of
       the display, then this should be given as ed.  Ed is only defined from the first column of
       a line.  (Thus, it can be simulated by a request to delete a large number of lines,  if  a
       true ed is not available.)

   Insert/delete line and vertical motions
       If the terminal can open a new blank line before the line where the cursor is, this should
       be given as il1; this is done only from the first position of a  line.   The  cursor  must
       then appear on the newly blank line.  If the terminal can delete the line which the cursor
       is on, then this should be given as dl1; this is done only from the first position on  the
       line  to  be deleted.  Versions of il1 and dl1 which take a single parameter and insert or
       delete that many lines can be given as il and dl.

       If the terminal has a settable scrolling region (like the vt100) the command to  set  this
       can  be  described with the csr capability, which takes two parameters: the top and bottom
       lines of the scrolling region.  The cursor position is, alas, undefined after  using  this

       It  is  possible to get the effect of insert or delete line using csr on a properly chosen
       region; the sc and rc (save and restore cursor) commands may be useful for  ensuring  that
       your  synthesized  insert/delete  string  does  not  move  the  cursor.   (Note  that  the
       ncurses(3NCURSES) library does this synthesis  automatically,  so  you  need  not  compose
       insert/delete strings for an entry with csr).

       Yet another way to construct insert and delete might be to use a combination of index with
       the memory-lock feature found on some terminals (like the HP-700/90 series, which  however
       also has insert/delete).

       Inserting  lines  at  the  top or bottom of the screen can also be done using ri or ind on
       many terminals without a true insert/delete line, and is often faster  even  on  terminals
       with those features.

       The boolean non_dest_scroll_region should be set if each scrolling window is effectively a
       view port on a screen-sized canvas.  To test  for  this  capability,  create  a  scrolling
       region in the middle of the screen, write something to the bottom line, move the cursor to
       the top of the region, and do ri followed by dl1 or ind.  If the  data  scrolled  off  the
       bottom  of  the  region by the ri re-appears, then scrolling is non-destructive.  System V
       and XSI Curses expect that ind, ri, indn, and rin  will  simulate  destructive  scrolling;
       their  documentation  cautions  you  not  to  define csr unless this is true.  This curses
       implementation is more liberal and will do explicit erases after  scrolling  if  ndstr  is

       If  the  terminal has the ability to define a window as part of memory, which all commands
       affect, it should be given as the parameterized string wind.  The four parameters are  the
       starting and ending lines in memory and the starting and ending columns in memory, in that

       If the terminal can retain display memory above, then the da capability should  be  given;
       if  display  memory  can  be retained below, then db should be given.  These indicate that
       deleting a line or scrolling may bring non-blank lines up from  below  or  that  scrolling
       back with ri may bring down non-blank lines.

   Insert/Delete Character
       There are two basic kinds of intelligent terminals with respect to insert/delete character
       which can be described using terminfo.  The most common insert/delete character operations
       affect  only  the  characters  on the current line and shift characters off the end of the
       line rigidly.  Other terminals, such as the Concept 100 and the Perkin Elmer Owl,  make  a
       distinction  between  typed  and  untyped blanks on the screen, shifting upon an insert or
       delete only to an untyped blank on the screen which is either eliminated, or  expanded  to
       two untyped blanks.

       You  can  determine  the  kind of terminal you have by clearing the screen and then typing
       text separated by cursor motions.  Type “abc    def” using local cursor motions (not  spa‐
       ces)  between  the “abc” and the “def”.  Then position the cursor before the “abc” and put
       the terminal in insert mode.  If typing characters causes the rest of the  line  to  shift
       rigidly  and  characters  to  fall  off  the  end, then your terminal does not distinguish
       between blanks and untyped positions.  If the “abc” shifts over to the  “def”  which  then
       move together around the end of the current line and onto the next as you insert, you have
       the second type of terminal, and should give the capability in, which stands  for  “insert

       While these are two logically separate attributes (one line versus multi-line insert mode,
       and special treatment of untyped spaces) we have seen no terminals whose insert mode  can‐
       not be described with the single attribute.

       Terminfo can describe both terminals which have an insert mode, and terminals which send a
       simple sequence to open a blank position on the current line.  Give as smir  the  sequence
       to  get  into  insert  mode.  Give as rmir the sequence to leave insert mode.  Now give as
       ich1 any sequence needed to be sent just before sending  the  character  to  be  inserted.
       Most terminals with a true insert mode will not give ich1; terminals which send a sequence
       to open a screen position should give it here.

       If your terminal has both, insert mode is usually preferable to  ich1.   Technically,  you
       should not give both unless the terminal actually requires both to be used in combination.
       Accordingly, some non-curses applications get confused if both are present; the symptom is
       doubled  characters  in  an  update  using insert.  This requirement is now rare; most ich
       sequences do not require previous smir, and most smir insert modes  do  not  require  ich1
       before  each  character.   Therefore, the new curses actually assumes this is the case and
       uses either rmir/smir or ich/ich1 as appropriate (but not both).  If you have to write  an
       entry  to  be  used  under  new curses for a terminal old enough to need both, include the
       rmir/smir sequences in ich1.

       If post insert padding is needed, give this as a number of milliseconds in  ip  (a  string
       option).  Any other sequence which may need to be sent after an insert of a single charac‐
       ter may also be given in ip.  If your terminal needs both to be  placed  into  an  “insert
       mode”  and a special code to precede each inserted character, then both smir/rmir and ich1
       can be given, and both will be used.  The ich capability,  with  one  parameter,  n,  will
       repeat the effects of ich1 n times.

       If  padding is necessary between characters typed while not in insert mode, give this as a
       number of milliseconds padding in rmp.

       It is occasionally necessary to move around while in insert mode to delete  characters  on
       the  same  line  (e.g., if there is a tab after the insertion position).  If your terminal
       allows motion while in insert mode you can give the capability mir to speed  up  inserting
       in  this case.  Omitting mir will affect only speed.  Some terminals (notably Datamedia's)
       must not have mir because of the way their insert mode works.

       Finally, you can specify dch1 to delete a single character, dch with one parameter, n,  to
       delete n characters, and delete mode by giving smdc and rmdc to enter and exit delete mode
       (any mode the terminal needs to be placed in for dch1 to work).

       A command to erase n characters (equivalent to outputting n blanks without moving the cur‐
       sor) can be given as ech with one parameter.

   Highlighting, Underlining, and Visible Bells
       If  your terminal has one or more kinds of display attributes, these can be represented in
       a number of different ways.  You should choose one display form as standout  mode,  repre‐
       senting  a  good,  high contrast, easy-on-the-eyes, format for highlighting error messages
       and other attention getters.  (If you have a choice, reverse  video  plus  half-bright  is
       good, or reverse video alone.)  The sequences to enter and exit standout mode are given as
       smso and rmso, respectively.  If the code to change into or out of  standout  mode  leaves
       one  or  even two blank spaces on the screen, as the TVI 912 and Teleray 1061 do, then xmc
       should be given to tell how many spaces are left.

       Codes to begin underlining and end underlining can be given as smul and rmul respectively.
       If  the  terminal  has  a  code to underline the current character and move the cursor one
       space to the right, such as the Microterm Mime, this can be given as uc.

       Other capabilities to enter various highlighting modes include blink (blinking) bold (bold
       or  extra  bright)  dim (dim or half-bright) invis (blanking or invisible text) prot (pro‐
       tected) rev (reverse video) sgr0 (turn off all attribute  modes)  smacs  (enter  alternate
       character  set  mode)  and  rmacs  (exit alternate character set mode).  Turning on any of
       these modes singly may or may not turn off other modes.

       If there is a sequence to set arbitrary combinations of modes, this should be given as sgr
       (set attributes), taking 9 parameters.  Each parameter is either 0 or nonzero, as the cor‐
       responding attribute is on or off.  The 9 parameters are, in order:  standout,  underline,
       reverse, blink, dim, bold, blank, protect, alternate character set.  Not all modes need be
       supported by sgr, only those for which corresponding separate attribute commands exist.

       For example, the DEC vt220 supports most of the modes:

                        tparm parameter      attribute        escape sequence

                        none                 none             \E[0m
                        p1                   standout         \E[0;1;7m
                        p2                   underline        \E[0;4m
                        p3                   reverse          \E[0;7m
                        p4                   blink            \E[0;5m
                        p5                   dim              not available

                        p6                   bold             \E[0;1m
                        p7                   invis            \E[0;8m
                        p8                   protect          not used
                        p9                   altcharset       ^O (off) ^N (on)

       We begin each escape sequence by turning off any existing modes, since there is  no  quick
       way  to  determine  whether  they are active.  Standout is set up to be the combination of
       reverse and bold.  The vt220 terminal has a protect mode, though it is not  commonly  used
       in  sgr  because  it  protects  characters  on  the  screen from the host's erasures.  The
       altcharset mode also is different in that it is either ^O or ^N, depending on  whether  it
       is off or on.  If all modes are turned on, the resulting sequence is \E[0;1;4;5;7;8m^N.

       Some sequences are common to different modes.  For example, ;7 is output when either p1 or
       p3 is true, that is, if either standout or reverse modes are turned on.

       Writing out the above sequences, along with their dependencies yields

                     sequence             when to output      terminfo translation

                     \E[0                 always              \E[0
                     ;1                   if p1 or p6         %?%p1%p6%|%t;1%;
                     ;4                   if p2               %?%p2%|%t;4%;
                     ;5                   if p4               %?%p4%|%t;5%;
                     ;7                   if p1 or p3         %?%p1%p3%|%t;7%;
                     ;8                   if p7               %?%p7%|%t;8%;
                     m                    always              m
                     ^N or ^O             if p9 ^N, else ^O   %?%p9%t^N%e^O%;

       Putting this all together into the sgr sequence gives:


       Remember that if you specify sgr, you must also specify sgr0.  Also, some  implementations
       rely  on  sgr  being  given  if  sgr0 is, Not all terminfo entries necessarily have an sgr
       string, however.  Many terminfo entries are derived from termcap entries which have no sgr
       string.   The only drawback to adding an sgr string is that termcap also assumes that sgr0
       does not exit alternate character set mode.

       Terminals with the “magic cookie” glitch (xmc) deposit special “cookies” when they receive
       mode-setting  sequences,  which affect the display algorithm rather than having extra bits
       for each character.  Some terminals, such as the HP  2621,  automatically  leave  standout
       mode  when  they  move  to a new line or the cursor is addressed.  Programs using standout
       mode should exit standout mode before moving the cursor or sending a newline,  unless  the
       msgr capability, asserting that it is safe to move in standout mode, is present.

       If  the  terminal  has  a  way of flashing the screen to indicate an error quietly (a bell
       replacement) then this can be given as flash; it must not move the cursor.

       If the cursor needs to be made more visible than normal when it is not on the bottom  line
       (to  make,  for example, a non-blinking underline into an easier to find block or blinking
       underline) give this sequence as cvvis.  If there is a way to make the  cursor  completely
       invisible,  give  that  as  civis.   The capability cnorm should be given which undoes the
       effects of both of these modes.

       If your terminal correctly generates underlined characters (with no special codes  needed)
       even  though it does not overstrike, then you should give the capability ul.  If a charac‐
       ter overstriking another leaves both characters on the screen, specify the capability  os.
       If overstrikes are erasable with a blank, then this should be indicated by giving eo.

   Keypad and Function Keys
       If the terminal has a keypad that transmits codes when the keys are pressed, this informa‐
       tion can be given.  Note that it is not possible to handle terminals where the keypad only
       works  in local (this applies, for example, to the unshifted HP 2621 keys).  If the keypad
       can be set to transmit or not transmit, give these codes as smkx and rmkx.  Otherwise  the
       keypad is assumed to always transmit.

       The  codes sent by the left arrow, right arrow, up arrow, down arrow, and home keys can be
       given as kcub1, kcuf1, kcuu1, kcud1, and khome respectively.  If there are  function  keys
       such  as  f0,  f1,  ..., f10, the codes they send can be given as kf0, kf1, ..., kf10.  If
       these keys have labels other than the default f0 through f10, the labels can be  given  as
       lf0, lf1, ..., lf10.

       The codes transmitted by certain other special keys can be given:

       ·   kll (home down),

       ·   kbs (backspace),

       ·   ktbc (clear all tabs),

       ·   kctab (clear the tab stop in this column),

       ·   kclr (clear screen or erase key),

       ·   kdch1 (delete character),

       ·   kdl1 (delete line),

       ·   krmir (exit insert mode),

       ·   kel (clear to end of line),

       ·   ked (clear to end of screen),

       ·   kich1 (insert character or enter insert mode),

       ·   kil1 (insert line),

       ·   knp (next page),

       ·   kpp (previous page),

       ·   kind (scroll forward/down),

       ·   kri (scroll backward/up),

       ·   khts (set a tab stop in this column).

       In  addition,  if the keypad has a 3 by 3 array of keys including the four arrow keys, the
       other five keys can be given as ka1, ka3, kb2, kc1, and kc3.  These keys are  useful  when
       the effects of a 3 by 3 directional pad are needed.

       Strings  to program function keys can be given as pfkey, pfloc, and pfx.  A string to pro‐
       gram screen labels should be specified as pln.  Each of these strings  takes  two  parame‐
       ters: the function key number to program (from 0 to 10) and the string to program it with.
       Function key numbers out of this range may program undefined keys in a terminal  dependent
       manner.   The  difference between the capabilities is that pfkey causes pressing the given
       key to be the same as the user typing the given string; pfloc causes the string to be exe‐
       cuted  by  the  terminal in local; and pfx causes the string to be transmitted to the com‐

       The capabilities nlab, lw and lh define the number of programmable screen labels and their
       width  and height.  If there are commands to turn the labels on and off, give them in smln
       and rmln.  smln is normally output after one or more pln sequences to make sure  that  the
       change becomes visible.

   Tabs and Initialization
       If  the  terminal  has  hardware  tabs, the command to advance to the next tab stop can be
       given as ht (usually control I).  A “back-tab” command which moves leftward to the preced‐
       ing tab stop can be given as cbt.  By convention, if the teletype modes indicate that tabs
       are being expanded by the computer rather than being sent to the terminal, programs should
       not  use  ht  or  cbt  even if they are present, since the user may not have the tab stops
       properly set.  If the terminal has hardware tabs which are initially set  every  n  spaces
       when  the terminal is powered up, the numeric parameter it is given, showing the number of
       spaces the tabs are set to.  This is normally  used  by  the  tset  command  to  determine
       whether  to set the mode for hardware tab expansion, and whether to set the tab stops.  If
       the terminal has tab stops that can be saved in non-volatile memory, the terminfo descrip‐
       tion can assume that they are properly set.

       Other  capabilities  include  is1,  is2, and is3, initialization strings for the terminal,
       iprog, the path name of a program to be run to initialize the terminal, and if,  the  name
       of  a  file containing long initialization strings.  These strings are expected to set the
       terminal into modes consistent with the rest of the terminfo description.  They  are  nor‐
       mally  sent  to  the  terminal, by the init option of the tput program, each time the user
       logs in.  They will be printed in the following order:

              run the program

              output is1 is2

              set the margins using
                     mgc, smgl and smgr

              set tabs using
                     tbc and hts

              print the file

              and finally
                     output is3.

       Most initialization is done with is2.  Special terminal modes can be set up without dupli‐
       cating strings by putting the common sequences in is2 and special cases in is1 and is3.

       A  set  of sequences that does a harder reset from a totally unknown state can be given as
       rs1, rs2, rf and rs3, analogous to is1 , is2 , if and is3 respectively.  These strings are
       output  by  the  reset  program, which is used when the terminal gets into a wedged state.
       Commands are normally placed in rs1, rs2 rs3 and rf only if they produce annoying  effects
       on  the screen and are not necessary when logging in.  For example, the command to set the
       vt100 into 80-column mode would normally be part of is2, but it causes an annoying  glitch
       of  the screen and is not normally needed since the terminal is usually already in 80 col‐
       umn mode.

       The reset program writes strings including iprog, etc., in the same order as the init pro‐
       gram, using rs1, etc., instead of is1, etc.  If any of rs1, rs2, rs3, or rf reset capabil‐
       ity strings are missing, the reset program falls back upon the  corresponding  initializa‐
       tion capability string.

       If  there are commands to set and clear tab stops, they can be given as tbc (clear all tab
       stops) and hts (set a tab stop in the current column of every row).   If  a  more  complex
       sequence  is  needed  to  set  the tabs than can be described by this, the sequence can be
       placed in is2 or if.

   Delays and Padding
       Many older and slower terminals do not support either XON/XOFF or DTR handshaking, includ‐
       ing  hard  copy terminals and some very archaic CRTs (including, for example, DEC VT100s).
       These may require padding characters after certain cursor motions and screen changes.

       If the terminal uses xon/xoff handshaking for flow  control  (that  is,  it  automatically
       emits  ^S back to the host when its input buffers are close to full), set xon.  This capa‐
       bility suppresses the emission of padding.  You can also set it for memory-mapped  console
       devices  effectively  that do not have a speed limit.  Padding information should still be
       included so that routines can make better decisions about relative costs, but  actual  pad
       characters will not be transmitted.

       If pb (padding baud rate) is given, padding is suppressed at baud rates below the value of
       pb.  If the entry has no padding baud rate, then whether padding is emitted or not is com‐
       pletely controlled by xon.

       If  the  terminal  requires  other than a null (zero) character as a pad, then this can be
       given as pad.  Only the first character of the pad string is used.

   Status Lines
       Some terminals have an extra “status line” which is not normally  used  by  software  (and
       thus not counted in the terminal's lines capability).

       The  simplest  case  is a status line which is cursor-addressable but not part of the main
       scrolling region on the screen; the Heathkit H19 has a status line of this kind, as  would
       a  24-line VT100 with a 23-line scrolling region set up on initialization.  This situation
       is indicated by the hs capability.

       Some terminals with status lines need special sequences to access the status line.   These
       may  be  expressed as a string with single parameter tsl which takes the cursor to a given
       zero-origin column on the status line.  The capability fsl must return to the  main-screen
       cursor positions before the last tsl.  You may need to embed the string values of sc (save
       cursor) and rc (restore cursor) in tsl and fsl to accomplish this.

       The status line is normally assumed to be the same width as the width of the terminal.  If
       this is untrue, you can specify it with the numeric capability wsl.

       A command to erase or blank the status line may be specified as dsl.

       The  boolean capability eslok specifies that escape sequences, tabs, etc., work ordinarily
       in the status line.

       The ncurses implementation does not yet use any of these  capabilities.   They  are  docu‐
       mented here in case they ever become important.

   Line Graphics
       Many  terminals  have  alternate  character  sets  useful for forms-drawing.  Terminfo and
       curses build in support for the drawing characters supported by the VT100, with some char‐
       acters  from  the AT&T 4410v1 added.  This alternate character set may be specified by the
       acsc capability.

       Glyph                                 ACS                      Ascii                VT100
       Name                                  Name                     Default              Name
       UK pound sign                         ACS_STERLING             f                    }
       arrow pointing down                   ACS_DARROW               v                    .
       arrow pointing left                   ACS_LARROW               <                    ,
       arrow pointing right                  ACS_RARROW               >                    +
       arrow pointing up                     ACS_UARROW               ^                    -
       board of squares                      ACS_BOARD                #                    h
       bullet                                ACS_BULLET               o                    ~
       checker board (stipple)               ACS_CKBOARD              :                    a
       degree symbol                         ACS_DEGREE               \                    f
       diamond                               ACS_DIAMOND              +                    `
       greater-than-or-equal-to              ACS_GEQUAL               >                    z
       greek pi                              ACS_PI                   *                    {
       horizontal line                       ACS_HLINE                -                    q
       lantern symbol                        ACS_LANTERN              #                    i
       large plus or crossover               ACS_PLUS                 +                    n
       less-than-or-equal-to                 ACS_LEQUAL               <                    y
       lower left corner                     ACS_LLCORNER             +                    m
       lower right corner                    ACS_LRCORNER             +                    j
       not-equal                             ACS_NEQUAL               !                    |
       plus/minus                            ACS_PLMINUS              #                    g
       scan line 1                           ACS_S1                   ~                    o
       scan line 3                           ACS_S3                   -                    p
       scan line 7                           ACS_S7                   -                    r
       scan line 9                           ACS_S9                   _                    s

       solid square block                    ACS_BLOCK                #                    0
       tee pointing down                     ACS_TTEE                 +                    w
       tee pointing left                     ACS_RTEE                 +                    u
       tee pointing right                    ACS_LTEE                 +                    t
       tee pointing up                       ACS_BTEE                 +                    v
       upper left corner                     ACS_ULCORNER             +                    l
       upper right corner                    ACS_URCORNER             +                    k
       vertical line                         ACS_VLINE                |                    x

       The best way to define a new device's graphics set is to add a column to a  copy  of  this
       table  for  your  terminal,  giving  the character which (when emitted between smacs/rmacs
       switches) will be rendered as the corresponding graphic.  Then  read  off  the  VT100/your
       terminal character pairs right to left in sequence; these become the ACSC string.

   Color Handling
       Most  color  terminals are either “Tektronix-like” or “HP-like”.  Tektronix-like terminals
       have a predefined set of N colors (where N usually 8), and can  set  character-cell  fore‐
       ground  and  background  characters independently, mixing them into N * N color-pairs.  On
       HP-like terminals, the use must set each color pair up separately  (foreground  and  back‐
       ground  are  not independently settable).  Up to M color-pairs may be set up from 2*M dif‐
       ferent colors.  ANSI-compatible terminals are Tektronix-like.

       Some basic color capabilities are independent of the color method.  The numeric  capabili‐
       ties  colors  and  pairs specify the maximum numbers of colors and color-pairs that can be
       displayed simultaneously.  The op (original pair) string resets foreground and  background
       colors  to  their  default  values  for  the terminal.  The oc string resets all colors or
       color-pairs to their default values for the terminal.  Some terminals (including  many  PC
       terminal  emulators)  erase screen areas with the current background color rather than the
       power-up default background; these should have the boolean capability bce.

       To change the current foreground or background color on  a  Tektronix-type  terminal,  use
       setaf  (set  ANSI foreground) and setab (set ANSI background) or setf (set foreground) and
       setb (set background).  These take one parameter, the color number.  The  SVr4  documenta‐
       tion  describes  only setaf/setab; the XPG4 draft says that "If the terminal supports ANSI
       escape sequences to set background and foreground, they  should  be  coded  as  setaf  and
       setab,  respectively.   If  the terminal supports other escape sequences to set background
       and foreground, they should be coded as setf and setb, respectively.  The vidputs()  func‐
       tion and the refresh functions use setaf and setab if they are defined."

       The  setaf/setab and setf/setb capabilities take a single numeric argument each.  Argument
       values 0-7 of setaf/setab are portably defined as follows (the middle column is  the  sym‐
       bolic  #define available in the header for the curses or ncurses libraries).  The terminal
       hardware is free to map these as it likes, but the RGB values indicate normal locations in
       color space.

                             Color       #define       Value       RGB
                             black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                             red       COLOR_RED         1     max,0,0
                             green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                             yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      3     max,max,0
                             blue      COLOR_BLUE        4     0,0,max
                             magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                             cyan      COLOR_CYAN        6     0,max,max
                             white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       The argument values of setf/setb historically correspond to a different mapping, i.e.,

                             Color       #define       Value       RGB
                             black     COLOR_BLACK       0     0, 0, 0
                             blue      COLOR_BLUE        1     0,0,max
                             green     COLOR_GREEN       2     0,max,0
                             cyan      COLOR_CYAN        3     0,max,max
                             red       COLOR_RED         4     max,0,0
                             magenta   COLOR_MAGENTA     5     max,0,max
                             yellow    COLOR_YELLOW      6     max,max,0

                             white     COLOR_WHITE       7     max,max,max

       It is important to not confuse the two sets of color capabilities; otherwise red/blue will
       be interchanged on the display.

       On an HP-like terminal, use scp with a color-pair number parameter to set which color pair
       is current.

       On  a  Tektronix-like  terminal, the capability ccc may be present to indicate that colors
       can be modified.  If so, the initc capability will take a color  number  (0  to  colors  -
       1)and  three  more parameters which describe the color.  These three parameters default to
       being interpreted as RGB (Red, Green, Blue) values.  If  the  boolean  capability  hls  is
       present,  they  are  instead  as HLS (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) indices.  The ranges are

       On an HP-like terminal, initp may give a capability for changing a color-pair  value.   It
       will  take  seven  parameters;  a  color-pair number (0 to max_pairs - 1), and two triples
       describing first background and then foreground colors.  These parameters  must  be  (Red,
       Green, Blue) or (Hue, Lightness, Saturation) depending on hls.

       On  some  color  terminals, colors collide with highlights.  You can register these colli‐
       sions with the ncv capability.  This is a bit-mask of attributes not to be used when  col‐
       ors  are  enabled.  The correspondence with the attributes understood by curses is as fol‐

                          Attribute              Bit   Decimal      Set by
                          A_STANDOUT             0     1            sgr
                          A_UNDERLINE            1     2            sgr
                          A_REVERSE              2     4            sgr
                          A_BLINK                3     8            sgr
                          A_DIM                  4     16           sgr
                          A_BOLD                 5     32           sgr
                          A_INVIS                6     64           sgr
                          A_PROTECT              7     128          sgr
                          A_ALTCHARSET           8     256          sgr
                          A_HORIZONTAL           9     512          sgr1
                          A_LEFT                 10    1024         sgr1
                          A_LOW                  11    2048         sgr1
                          A_RIGHT                12    4096         sgr1
                          A_TOP                  13    8192         sgr1
                          A_VERTICAL             14    16384        sgr1
                          A_ITALIC               15    32768        sitm

       For example, on many IBM PC consoles, the underline attribute collides with the foreground
       color blue and is not available in color mode.  These should have an ncv capability of 2.

       SVr4 curses does nothing with ncv, ncurses recognizes it and optimizes the output in favor
       of colors.

       If the terminal requires other than a null (zero) character as a pad,  then  this  can  be
       given  as  pad.  Only the first character of the pad string is used.  If the terminal does
       not have a pad character, specify npc.  Note that ncurses implements the  termcap-compati‐
       ble PC variable; though the application may set this value to something other than a null,
       ncurses will test npc first and use napms if the terminal has no pad character.

       If the terminal can move up or down half a line, this can be indicated with hu  (half-line
       up)  and hd (half-line down).  This is primarily useful for superscripts and subscripts on
       hard-copy terminals.  If a hard-copy terminal can eject to the next page (form feed), give
       this as ff (usually control L).

       If  there  is  a command to repeat a given character a given number of times (to save time
       transmitting a large number of identical characters) this can be indicated with the param‐
       eterized  string  rep.  The first parameter is the character to be repeated and the second
       is the number of times to repeat it.  Thus, tparm(repeat_char, 'x', 10)  is  the  same  as

       If  the terminal has a settable command character, such as the TEKTRONIX 4025, this can be
       indicated with cmdch.  A prototype command character is chosen which is used in all  capa‐
       bilities.   This character is given in the cmdch capability to identify it.  The following
       convention is supported on some UNIX systems: The environment is to be searched for  a  CC
       variable,  and  if found, all occurrences of the prototype character are replaced with the
       character in the environment variable.

       Terminal descriptions that do not represent a specific kind of  known  terminal,  such  as
       switch,  dialup,  patch,  and  network, should include the gn (generic) capability so that
       programs can complain that they do not know how to talk to the terminal.  (This capability
       does not apply to virtual terminal descriptions for which the escape sequences are known.)

       If  the  terminal  has  a “meta key” which acts as a shift key, setting the 8th bit of any
       character transmitted, this fact can be  indicated  with  km.   Otherwise,  software  will
       assume  that  the  8th  bit is parity and it will usually be cleared.  If strings exist to
       turn this “meta mode” on and off, they can be given as smm and rmm.

       If the terminal has more lines of memory than will fit on the screen at once,  the  number
       of lines of memory can be indicated with lm.  A value of lm#0 indicates that the number of
       lines is not fixed, but that there is still more memory than fits on the screen.

       If the terminal is one of those supported by the UNIX virtual terminal protocol, the  ter‐
       minal number can be given as vt.

       Media  copy  strings  which  control an auxiliary printer connected to the terminal can be
       given as mc0: print the contents of the screen, mc4: turn off the printer, and  mc5:  turn
       on the printer.  When the printer is on, all text sent to the terminal will be sent to the
       printer.  It is undefined whether the text is also displayed on the terminal  screen  when
       the printer is on.  A variation mc5p takes one parameter, and leaves the printer on for as
       many characters as the value of the parameter, then turns the printer off.  The  parameter
       should  not  exceed  255.  All text, including mc4, is transparently passed to the printer
       while an mc5p is in effect.

   Glitches and Braindamage
       Hazeltine terminals, which do not allow “~” characters to be displayed should indicate hz.

       Terminals which ignore a line-feed immediately after an am wrap, such as the  Concept  and
       vt100, should indicate xenl.

       If  el is required to get rid of standout (instead of merely writing normal text on top of
       it), xhp should be given.

       Teleray terminals, where tabs turn all characters moved over to blanks, should indicate xt
       (destructive  tabs).  Note: the variable indicating this is now “dest_tabs_magic_smso”; in
       older versions, it was teleray_glitch.  This glitch is also taken to mean that it  is  not
       possible to position the cursor on top of a “magic cookie”, that to erase standout mode it
       is instead necessary to use delete and insert line.  The  ncurses  implementation  ignores
       this glitch.

       The  Beehive Superbee, which is unable to correctly transmit the escape or control C char‐
       acters, has xsb, indicating that the f1 key is used for  escape  and  f2  for  control  C.
       (Only certain Superbees have this problem, depending on the ROM.)  Note that in older ter‐
       minfo versions, this capability was called “beehive_glitch”; it is now “no_esc_ctl_c”.

       Other specific terminal problems may be corrected by adding more capabilities of the  form

   Similar Terminals
       If  there  are  two very similar terminals, one (the variant) can be defined as being just
       like the other (the base) with certain exceptions.  In the definition of the variant,  the
       string  capability  use can be given with the name of the base terminal.  The capabilities
       given before use override those in the base type named by use.  If there are multiple  use
       capabilities,  they  are merged in reverse order.  That is, the rightmost use reference is
       processed first, then the one to its left, and so forth.  Capabilities given explicitly in
       the entry override those brought in by use references.

       A  capability can be canceled by placing xx@ to the left of the use reference that imports
       it, where xx is the capability.  For example, the entry

              2621-nl, smkx@, rmkx@, use=2621,

       defines a 2621-nl that does not have the smkx or rmkx capabilities,  and  hence  does  not
       turn  on  the function key labels when in visual mode.  This is useful for different modes
       for a terminal, or for different user preferences.

   Pitfalls of Long Entries
       Long terminfo entries are unlikely to be a problem; to date, no entry has even  approached
       terminfo's  4096-byte  string-table  maximum.  Unfortunately, the termcap translations are
       much more strictly limited (to 1023 bytes), thus termcap  translations  of  long  terminfo
       entries can cause problems.

       The  man  pages for 4.3BSD and older versions of tgetent() instruct the user to allocate a
       1024-byte buffer for the termcap entry.  The entry gets  null-terminated  by  the  termcap
       library,  so  that  makes  the  maximum safe length for a termcap entry 1k-1 (1023) bytes.
       Depending on what the application and the termcap library being used does,  and  where  in
       the  termcap file the terminal type that tgetent() is searching for is, several bad things
       can happen.

       Some termcap libraries print a warning message or exit if they find an entry that's longer
       than  1023 bytes; others do not; others truncate the entries to 1023 bytes.  Some applica‐
       tion programs allocate more than the recommended 1K for the termcap entry; others do not.

       Each termcap entry has two important sizes associated with it: before "tc" expansion,  and
       after  "tc"  expansion.  "tc" is the capability that tacks on another termcap entry to the
       end of the current one, to add on its capabilities.  If a termcap entry does not  use  the
       "tc" capability, then of course the two lengths are the same.

       The  "before  tc expansion" length is the most important one, because it affects more than
       just users of that particular terminal.  This is the length of the entry as it  exists  in
       /etc/termcap,  minus the backslash-newline pairs, which tgetent() strips out while reading
       it.  Some termcap libraries strip off the final newline, too (GNU termcap does not).   Now

       ·   a termcap entry before expansion is more than 1023 bytes long,

       ·   and the application has only allocated a 1k buffer,

       ·   and  the  termcap  library  (like the one in BSD/OS 1.1 and GNU) reads the whole entry
           into the buffer, no matter what its length, to see if it is the entry it wants,

       ·   and tgetent() is searching for a terminal type that either is the long entry,  appears
           in  the  termcap  file after the long entry, or does not appear in the file at all (so
           that tgetent() has to search the whole termcap file).

       Then tgetent() will overwrite memory, perhaps its stack, and probably core dump  the  pro‐
       gram.   Programs like telnet are particularly vulnerable; modern telnets pass along values
       like the terminal type automatically.  The results are almost as undesirable with a  term‐
       cap  library,  like SunOS 4.1.3 and Ultrix 4.4, that prints warning messages when it reads
       an overly long termcap entry.  If a termcap library truncates  long  entries,  like  OSF/1
       3.0, it is immune to dying here but will return incorrect data for the terminal.

       The "after tc expansion" length will have a similar effect to the above, but only for peo‐
       ple who actually set TERM to that terminal type, since tgetent() only does "tc"  expansion
       once it is found the terminal type it was looking for, not while searching.

       In  summary, a termcap entry that is longer than 1023 bytes can cause, on various combina‐
       tions of termcap libraries and applications, a core dump, warnings,  or  incorrect  opera‐
       tion.   If  it  is  too long even before "tc" expansion, it will have this effect even for
       users of some other terminal types and users whose TERM variable does not have  a  termcap

       When  in -C (translate to termcap) mode, the ncurses implementation of tic(1) issues warn‐
       ing messages when the pre-tc length of a termcap translation is too long.  The -c  (check)
       option also checks resolved (after tc expansion) lengths.

   Binary Compatibility
       It  is not wise to count on portability of binary terminfo entries between commercial UNIX
       versions.  The problem is that there are at least two versions of  terminfo  (under  HP-UX
       and  AIX) which diverged from System V terminfo after SVr1, and have added extension capa‐
       bilities to the string table that (in the binary format) collide with  System  V  and  XSI
       Curses extensions.

       Searching  for terminal descriptions in $HOME/.terminfo and TERMINFO_DIRS is not supported
       by older implementations.

       Some SVr4 curses implementations, and all previous to SVr4, do not interpret the %A and %O
       operators in parameter strings.

       SVr4/XPG4  do  not specify whether msgr licenses movement while in an alternate-character-
       set mode (such modes may, among other things, map CR and NL  to  characters  that  do  not
       trigger local motions).  The ncurses implementation ignores msgr in ALTCHARSET mode.  This
       raises the possibility that an XPG4 implementation making the opposite interpretation  may
       need terminfo entries made for ncurses to have msgr turned off.

       The ncurses library handles insert-character and insert-character modes in a slightly non-
       standard way to get better update efficiency.  See the Insert/Delete Character  subsection

       The  parameter substitutions for set_clock and display_clock are not documented in SVr4 or
       the XSI Curses standard.  They are deduced from the documentation for the AT&T 505  termi‐

       Be  careful  assigning  the  kmous  capability.   The  ncurses  wants  to  interpret it as
       KEY_MOUSE, for use by terminals and emulators like xterm that  can  return  mouse-tracking
       information in the keyboard-input stream.

       X/Open  Curses  does  not mention italics.  Portable applications must assume that numeric
       capabilities are signed 16-bit values.  This includes the no_color_video (ncv) capability.
       The 32768 mask value used for italics with ncv can be confused with an absent or cancelled
       ncv.  If italics should work with colors, then the ncv value must be specified, even if it
       is zero.

       Different  commercial  ports  of  terminfo and curses support different subsets of the XSI
       Curses standard and (in some cases) different extension sets.  Here is a summary, accurate
       as of October 1995:

       SVR4, Solaris, ncurses -- These support all SVr4 capabilities.

       SGI   --  Supports  the  SVr4  set,  adds  one  undocumented  extended  string  capability

       SVr1, Ultrix -- These support a restricted subset of terminfo capabilities.  The  booleans
       end with xon_xoff; the numerics with width_status_line; and the strings with prtr_non.

       HP/UX  --  Supports  the SVr1 subset, plus the SVr[234] numerics num_labels, label_height,
       label_width, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus plab_norm,  label_on,  and  label_off,
       plus some incompatible extensions in the string table.

       AIX -- Supports the SVr1 subset, plus function keys 11 through 63, plus a number of incom‐
       patible string table extensions.

       OSF -- Supports both the SVr4 set and the AIX extensions.

       /etc/terminfo/?/*        files containing terminal descriptions

       tic(1), infocmp(1), ncurses(3NCURSES), printf(3), term(5).  terminfo_variables(3NCURSES).

       Zeyd M. Ben-Halim, Eric S. Raymond, Thomas E. Dickey.  Based on pcurses by Pavel Curtis.


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