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UNZIP(1)                             General Commands Manual                             UNZIP(1)

       unzip - list, test and extract compressed files in a ZIP archive

       unzip  [-Z] [-cflptTuvz[abjnoqsCDKLMUVWX$/:^]] file[.zip] [file(s) ...]  [-x xfile(s) ...]
       [-d exdir]

       unzip will list, test, or extract files from a ZIP archive, commonly found on MS-DOS  sys‐
       tems.   The  default  behavior  (with no options) is to extract into the current directory
       (and subdirectories below it) all files from the specified ZIP archive.  A companion  pro‐
       gram,  zip(1), creates ZIP archives; both programs are compatible with archives created by
       PKWARE's PKZIP and PKUNZIP for MS-DOS, but in many cases the program  options  or  default
       behaviors differ.

              Path of the ZIP archive(s).  If the file specification is a wildcard, each matching
              file is processed in an order determined by the operating system (or file  system).
              Only  the filename can be a wildcard; the path itself cannot.  Wildcard expressions
              are similar to those supported in commonly used Unix shells (sh, ksh, csh) and  may

              *      matches a sequence of 0 or more characters

              ?      matches exactly 1 character

              [...]  matches any single character found inside the brackets; ranges are specified
                     by a beginning character, a hyphen, and an ending character.  If an exclama‐
                     tion  point or a caret (`!' or `^') follows the left bracket, then the range
                     of characters within the brackets is complemented (that is, anything  except
                     the  characters  inside  the  brackets is considered a match).  To specify a
                     verbatim left bracket, the three-character sequence ``[[]'' has to be used.

              (Be sure to quote any character that might otherwise be interpreted or modified  by
              the  operating  system, particularly under Unix and VMS.)  If no matches are found,
              the specification is assumed to be a literal filename; and if that also fails,  the
              suffix  .zip  is  appended.   Note that self-extracting ZIP files are supported, as
              with any other ZIP archive; just specify the .exe suffix (if any) explicitly.

              An optional list of archive members to be processed,  separated  by  spaces.   (VMS
              versions  compiled with VMSCLI defined must delimit files with commas instead.  See
              -v in OPTIONS below.)  Regular expressions (wildcards) may be used to match  multi‐
              ple  members;  see above.  Again, be sure to quote expressions that would otherwise
              be expanded or modified by the operating system.

       [-x xfile(s)]
              An optional list of archive members to be excluded from processing.  Since wildcard
              characters normally match (`/') directory separators (for exceptions see the option
              -W), this option may be used to exclude any files that are in subdirectories.   For
              example,  ``unzip  foo *.[ch] -x */*'' would extract all C source files in the main
              directory, but none in any subdirectories.  Without the -x  option,  all  C  source
              files in all directories within the zipfile would be extracted.

       [-d exdir]
              An  optional directory to which to extract files.  By default, all files and subdi‐
              rectories are recreated in the current directory; the -d option  allows  extraction
              in  an  arbitrary  directory  (always  assuming  one has permission to write to the
              directory).  This option need not appear at the end of the command line; it is also
              accepted  before  the  zipfile specification (with the normal options), immediately
              after the zipfile specification, or between the file(s) and  the  -x  option.   The
              option  and directory may be concatenated without any white space between them, but
              note that this may cause normal shell behavior to be  suppressed.   In  particular,
              ``-d ~''  (tilde)  is  expanded  by  Unix C shells into the name of the user's home
              directory, but ``-d~'' is treated as a literal subdirectory ``~''  of  the  current

       Note that, in order to support obsolescent hardware, unzip's usage screen is limited to 22
       or 23 lines and should therefore be considered only a reminder of the basic  unzip  syntax
       rather than an exhaustive list of all possible flags.  The exhaustive list follows:

       -Z     zipinfo(1)  mode.   If  the  first  option on the command line is -Z, the remaining
              options are taken to be zipinfo(1) options.  See the appropriate manual page for  a
              description of these options.

       -A     [OS/2, Unix DLL] print extended help for the DLL's programming interface (API).

       -c     extract  files to stdout/screen (``CRT'').  This option is similar to the -p option
              except that the name of each file is printed as it is extracted, the -a  option  is
              allowed,  and  ASCII-EBCDIC  conversion  is automatically performed if appropriate.
              This option is not listed in the unzip usage screen.

       -f     freshen existing files, i.e., extract only those files that already exist  on  disk
              and that are newer than the disk copies.  By default unzip queries before overwrit‐
              ing, but the -o option may be used to suppress the queries.  Note that  under  many
              operating  systems, the TZ (timezone) environment variable must be set correctly in
              order for -f and -u to work properly (under Unix the variable is usually set  auto‐
              matically).   The reasons for this are somewhat subtle but have to do with the dif‐
              ferences between DOS-format file times (always local time)  and  Unix-format  times
              (always  in  GMT/UTC)  and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ value is
              ``PST8PDT'' (US Pacific time with automatic adjustment for Daylight Savings Time or
              ``summer time'').

       -l     list  archive files (short format).  The names, uncompressed file sizes and modifi‐
              cation dates and times of the specified files are printed, along  with  totals  for
              all  files  specified.   If  UnZip was compiled with OS2_EAS defined, the -l option
              also lists columns for the sizes of stored OS/2 extended attributes (EAs) and  OS/2
              access  control lists (ACLs).  In addition, the zipfile comment and individual file
              comments (if any) are displayed.  If a file was archived from  a  single-case  file
              system  (for  example, the old MS-DOS FAT file system) and the -L option was given,
              the filename is converted to lowercase and is prefixed with a caret (^).

       -p     extract files to pipe (stdout).  Nothing but the file data is sent to  stdout,  and
              the  files  are always extracted in binary format, just as they are stored (no con‐

       -t     test archive files.  This option extracts each specified file in  memory  and  com‐
              pares  the CRC (cyclic redundancy check, an enhanced checksum) of the expanded file
              with the original file's stored CRC value.

       -T     [most OSes] set the timestamp on the archive(s) to that of the newest file in  each
              one.   This  corresponds to zip's -go option except that it can be used on wildcard
              zipfiles (e.g., ``unzip -T \*.zip'') and is much faster.

       -u     update existing files and create new ones if needed.  This option performs the same
              function  as the -f option, extracting (with query) files that are newer than those
              with the same name on disk, and in addition it extracts those  files  that  do  not
              already  exist on disk.  See -f above for information on setting the timezone prop‐

       -v     list archive files (verbose format) or show diagnostic version info.   This  option
              has  evolved and now behaves as both an option and a modifier.  As an option it has
              two purposes:  when a zipfile is specified with no other options, -v lists  archive
              files  verbosely,  adding  to  the basic -l info the compression method, compressed
              size, compression ratio and 32-bit CRC.  In contrast to most of the competing util‐
              ities,  unzip  removes the 12 additional header bytes of encrypted entries from the
              compressed size numbers.  Therefore, compressed size and compression ratio  figures
              are  independent  of the entry's encryption status and show the correct compression
              performance.  (The complete size of the encrypted compressed data stream  for  zip‐
              file  entries  is reported by the more verbose zipinfo(1) reports, see the separate
              manual.)  When no zipfile is specified (that is, the  complete  command  is  simply
              ``unzip  -v''),  a  diagnostic screen is printed.  In addition to the normal header
              with release date and version, unzip lists the home Info-ZIP ftp site and where  to
              find  a  list of other ftp and non-ftp sites; the target operating system for which
              it was compiled, as well as (possibly) the hardware on which it was  compiled,  the
              compiler  and  version  used,  and  the  compilation  date; any special compilation
              options that might affect the program's operation (see also DECRYPTION below);  and
              any options stored in environment variables that might do the same (see ENVIRONMENT
              OPTIONS below).  As a modifier it works in conjunction with  other  options  (e.g.,
              -t)  to produce more verbose or debugging output; this is not yet fully implemented
              but will be in future releases.

       -z     display only the archive comment.

       -a     convert text files.  Ordinarily all files are extracted exactly as they are  stored
              (as  ``binary'' files).  The -a option causes files identified by zip as text files
              (those with the `t' label in zipinfo listings, rather than `b') to be automatically
              extracted  as such, converting line endings, end-of-file characters and the charac‐
              ter set itself as necessary.  (For example, Unix files use  line  feeds  (LFs)  for
              end-of-line  (EOL)  and  have no end-of-file (EOF) marker; Macintoshes use carriage
              returns (CRs) for EOLs; and most PC operating systems use CR+LF for EOLs  and  con‐
              trol-Z  for  EOF.  In addition, IBM mainframes and the Michigan Terminal System use
              EBCDIC rather than the more common ASCII character set, and NT  supports  Unicode.)
              Note  that zip's identification of text files is by no means perfect; some ``text''
              files may actually be binary and vice versa.  unzip therefore prints ``[text]''  or
              ``[binary]''  as a visual check for each file it extracts when using the -a option.
              The -aa option forces all files to be extracted as text, regardless of the supposed
              file type.  On VMS, see also -S.

       -b     [general]  treat all files as binary (no text conversions).  This is a shortcut for

       -b     [Tandem] force the creation files with filecode type 180 ('C') when extracting  Zip
              entries marked as "text". (On Tandem, -a is enabled by default, see above).

       -b     [VMS]  auto-convert  binary  files  (see -a above) to fixed-length, 512-byte record
              format.  Doubling the option (-bb) forces all files to be extracted in this format.
              When extracting to standard output (-c or -p option in effect), the default conver‐
              sion of text record delimiters is disabled for binary (-b) resp. all (-bb) files.

       -B     [when compiled with UNIXBACKUP defined] save a  backup  copy  of  each  overwritten
              file.  The backup file is gets the name of the target file with a tilde and option‐
              ally a unique sequence number (up to 5 digits) appended.  The  sequence  number  is
              applied  whenever  another  file  with the original name plus tilde already exists.
              When used together with the "overwrite all" option -o, numbered  backup  files  are
              never  created.  In this case, all backup files are named as the original file with
              an appended tilde, existing backup files are deleted without notice.  This  feature
              works similarly to the default behavior of emacs(1) in many locations.

              Example: the old copy of ``foo'' is renamed to ``foo~''.

              Warning: Users should be aware that the -B option does not prevent loss of existing
              data under all circumstances.  For example, when  unzip  is  run  in  overwrite-all
              mode,  an existing ``foo~'' file is deleted before unzip attempts to rename ``foo''
              to ``foo~''.  When this rename attempt fails (because of a file locks, insufficient
              privileges,  or ...), the extraction of ``foo~'' gets cancelled, but the old backup
              file is already lost.  A similar scenario takes  place  when  the  sequence  number
              range  for  numbered  backup  files gets exhausted (99999, or 65535 for 16-bit sys‐
              tems).  In this case, the backup file with the maximum sequence number  is  deleted
              and replaced by the new backup version without notice.

       -C     use  case-insensitive  matching  for the selection of archive entries from the com‐
              mand-line list of extract selection patterns.  unzip's philosophy is ``you get what
              you  ask  for''  (this  is  also responsible for the -L/-U change; see the relevant
              options below).  Because some file systems are fully case-sensitive (notably  those
              under the Unix operating system) and because both ZIP archives and unzip itself are
              portable across platforms, unzip's default behavior is to match both  wildcard  and
              literal  filenames  case-sensitively.  That is, specifying ``makefile'' on the com‐
              mand line will only match ``makefile'' in the archive, not ``Makefile'' or  ``MAKE‐
              FILE'' (and similarly for wildcard specifications).  Since this does not correspond
              to the behavior of many other operating/file systems (for example, OS/2 HPFS, which
              preserves  mixed  case  but  is  not sensitive to it), the -C option may be used to
              force all filename matches to be case-insensitive.  In the example above, all three
              files  would  then  match  ``makefile''  (or ``make*'', or similar).  The -C option
              affects file specs in both the normal file list and the excluded-file list (xlist).

              Please note that the -C option does neither affect the search  for  the  zipfile(s)
              nor the matching of archive entries to existing files on the extraction path.  On a
              case-sensitive file system, unzip will never try to overwrite a file  ``FOO''  when
              extracting an entry ``foo''!

       -D     skip  restoration  of  timestamps  for  extracted  items.  Normally, unzip tries to
              restore all meta-information for extracted items that are supplied in the  Zip  ar‐
              chive (and do not require privileges or impose a security risk).  By specifying -D,
              unzip is told to suppress restoration of timestamps for directories explicitly cre‐
              ated from Zip archive entries.  This option only applies to ports that support set‐
              ting timestamps for directories (currently ATheOS, BeOS, MacOS,  OS/2,  Unix,  VMS,
              Win32,  for other unzip ports, -D has no effect).  The duplicated option -DD forces
              suppression of timestamp restoration for all extracted entries (files and  directo‐
              ries).   This option results in setting the timestamps for all extracted entries to
              the current time.

              On VMS, the default setting for this option is -D for consistency with  the  behav‐
              iour  of  BACKUP: file timestamps are restored, timestamps of extracted directories
              are left at the current time.  To enable restoration of directory  timestamps,  the
              negated  option  --D should be specified.  On VMS, the option -D disables timestamp
              restoration for all extracted Zip archive items.  (Here, a single -D on the command
              line  combines  with  the  default -D to do what an explicit -DD does on other sys‐

       -E     [MacOS only] display contents of MacOS extra field during restore operation.

       -F     [Acorn only] suppress removal of NFS filetype extension from stored filenames.

       -F     [non-Acorn systems supporting long filenames with embedded commas, and only if com‐
              piled  with ACORN_FTYPE_NFS defined] translate filetype information from ACORN RISC
              OS extra field blocks into a NFS filetype extension and append it to the  names  of
              the extracted files.  (When the stored filename appears to already have an appended
              NFS filetype extension, it is replaced by the info from the extra field.)

       -i     [MacOS only] ignore filenames stored in MacOS extra fields. Instead, the most  com‐
              patible filename stored in the generic part of the entry's header is used.

       -j     junk  paths.   The  archive's  directory  structure is not recreated; all files are
              deposited in the extraction directory (by default, the current one).

       -J     [BeOS only] junk  file  attributes.   The  file's  BeOS  file  attributes  are  not
              restored, just the file's data.

       -J     [MacOS  only]  ignore  MacOS extra fields.  All Macintosh specific info is skipped.
              Data-fork and resource-fork are restored as separate files.

       -K     [AtheOS, BeOS, Unix only] retain SUID/SGID/Tacky  file  attributes.   Without  this
              flag, these attribute bits are cleared for security reasons.

       -L     convert to lowercase any filename originating on an uppercase-only operating system
              or file system.  (This was unzip's default behavior in releases prior to 5.11;  the
              new  default behavior is identical to the old behavior with the -U option, which is
              now obsolete and will be removed in a future release.)  Depending on the  archiver,
              files  archived  under  single-case file systems (VMS, old MS-DOS FAT, etc.) may be
              stored as all-uppercase names; this can be ugly or inconvenient when extracting  to
              a  case-preserving  file  system  such as OS/2 HPFS or a case-sensitive one such as
              under Unix.  By default unzip lists and extracts such filenames exactly as  they're
              stored  (excepting  truncation,  conversion  of unsupported characters, etc.); this
              option causes the names of all files from certain systems to be converted to lower‐
              case.   The -LL option forces conversion of every filename to lowercase, regardless
              of the originating file system.

       -M     pipe all output through an internal pager similar to the Unix more(1) command.   At
              the end of a screenful of output, unzip pauses with a ``--More--'' prompt; the next
              screenful may be viewed by pressing the Enter (Return) key or the space bar.  unzip
              can  be terminated by pressing the ``q'' key and, on some systems, the Enter/Return
              key.  Unlike Unix more(1), there is no  forward-searching  or  editing  capability.
              Also,  unzip  doesn't  notice  if long lines wrap at the edge of the screen, effec‐
              tively resulting in the printing of two or more lines and the likelihood that  some
              text  will  scroll  off the top of the screen before being viewed.  On some systems
              the number of available lines on the screen is not detected, in  which  case  unzip
              assumes the height is 24 lines.

       -n     never  overwrite  existing files.  If a file already exists, skip the extraction of
              that file without prompting.  By default unzip queries before extracting  any  file
              that  already exists; the user may choose to overwrite only the current file, over‐
              write all files, skip extraction of the current file, skip extraction of all exist‐
              ing files, or rename the current file.

       -N     [Amiga]  extract  file comments as Amiga filenotes.  File comments are created with
              the -c option of zip(1), or with the -N option of the Amiga port of  zip(1),  which
              stores filenotes as comments.

       -o     overwrite  existing files without prompting.  This is a dangerous option, so use it
              with care.  (It is often used with -f, however, and is the only  way  to  overwrite
              directory EAs under OS/2.)

       -P password
              use  password  to  decrypt  encrypted  zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!
              Many multi-user operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current com‐
              mand line of any other user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat
              of over-the-shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a  command
              line in an automated script is even worse.  Whenever possible, use the non-echoing,
              interactive prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use
              strong  encryption  such  as  Pretty  Good  Privacy  instead of the relatively weak
              encryption provided by standard zipfile utilities.)

       -q     perform operations quietly (-qq = even quieter).  Ordinarily unzip prints the names
              of  the  files it's extracting or testing, the extraction methods, any file or zip‐
              file comments that may be stored in the archive, and possibly a summary  when  fin‐
              ished with each archive.  The -q[q] options suppress the printing of some or all of
              these messages.

       -s     [OS/2, NT, MS-DOS] convert spaces in filenames to underscores.  Since all PC  oper‐
              ating  systems  allow spaces in filenames, unzip by default extracts filenames with
              spaces intact (e.g., ``EA DATA. SF'').  This can be awkward, however, since  MS-DOS
              in  particular does not gracefully support spaces in filenames.  Conversion of spa‐
              ces to underscores can eliminate the awkwardness in some cases.

       -S     [VMS] convert text files (-a, -aa) into Stream_LF record  format,  instead  of  the
              text-file default, variable-length record format.  (Stream_LF is the default record
              format of VMS unzip. It is applied unless conversion (-a, -aa and/or  -b,  -bb)  is
              requested or a VMS-specific entry is processed.)

       -U     [UNICODE_SUPPORT  only]  modify or disable UTF-8 handling.  When UNICODE_SUPPORT is
              available, the option -U forces unzip to escape all non-ASCII characters from UTF-8
              coded  filenames  as  ``#Uxxxx'' (for UCS-2 characters, or ``#Lxxxxxx'' for unicode
              codepoints needing 3 octets).  This option is mainly provided for debugging purpose
              when the fairly new UTF-8 support is suspected to mangle up extracted filenames.

              The  option  -UU  allows to entirely disable the recognition of UTF-8 encoded file‐
              names.  The handling of filename codings within unzip falls back to  the  behaviour
              of previous versions.

              [old,  obsolete usage] leave filenames uppercase if created under MS-DOS, VMS, etc.
              See -L above.

       -V     retain (VMS) file version numbers.  VMS files can be stored with a version  number,
              in  the  format  file.ext;##.  By default the ``;##'' version numbers are stripped,
              but this option allows them to be retained.  (On file systems that limit  filenames
              to  particularly  short  lengths,  the version numbers may be truncated or stripped
              regardless of this option.)

       -W     [only when WILD_STOP_AT_DIR  compile-time  option  enabled]  modifies  the  pattern
              matching  routine so that both `?' (single-char wildcard) and `*' (multi-char wild‐
              card) do not match the  directory  separator  character  `/'.   (The  two-character
              sequence ``**'' acts as a multi-char wildcard that includes the directory separator
              in its matched characters.)  Examples:

           "*.c" matches "foo.c" but not "mydir/foo.c"
           "**.c" matches both "foo.c" and "mydir/foo.c"
           "*/*.c" matches "bar/foo.c" but not "baz/bar/foo.c"
           "??*/*" matches "ab/foo" and "abc/foo"
                   but not "a/foo" or "a/b/foo"

              This modified behaviour is equivalent to the pattern matching  style  used  by  the
              shells  of  some  of  UnZip's  supported target OSs (one example is Acorn RISC OS).
              This option may not be available on systems where the Zip archive's internal direc‐
              tory  separator  character  `/' is allowed as regular character in native operating
              system filenames.  (Currently, UnZip uses the same pattern matching rules for  both
              wildcard  zipfile  specifications  and  zip entry selection patterns in most ports.
              For systems allowing `/' as regular filename character, the  -W  option  would  not
              work as expected on a wildcard zipfile specification.)

       -X     [VMS,  Unix, OS/2, NT, Tandem] restore owner/protection info (UICs and ACL entries)
              under VMS, or user and group info (UID/GID) under Unix,  or  access  control  lists
              (ACLs)  under  certain  network-enabled  versions of OS/2 (Warp Server with IBM LAN
              Server/Requester 3.0 to 5.0; Warp Connect with IBM  Peer  1.0),  or  security  ACLs
              under  Windows  NT.  In most cases this will require special system privileges, and
              doubling the option (-XX) under NT instructs unzip to use  privileges  for  extrac‐
              tion; but under Unix, for example, a user who belongs to several groups can restore
              files owned by any of those groups, as long as the user IDs match his or  her  own.
              Note that ordinary file attributes are always restored--this option applies only to
              optional, extra ownership info available on some operating systems.   [NT's  access
              control  lists do not appear to be especially compatible with OS/2's, so no attempt
              is made at cross-platform portability of access privileges.  It is not clear  under
              what conditions this would ever be useful anyway.]

       -Y     [VMS]  treat  archived  file  name  endings of ``.nnn'' (where ``nnn'' is a decimal
              number) as if they were VMS version numbers (``;nnn'').  (The default is  to  treat
              them as file types.)  Example:
                   "a.b.3" -> "a.b;3".

       -$     [MS-DOS,  OS/2,  NT] restore the volume label if the extraction medium is removable
              (e.g., a diskette).  Doubling the option (-$$) allows fixed media (hard  disks)  to
              be labelled as well.  By default, volume labels are ignored.

       -/ extensions
              [Acorn  only]  overrides the extension list supplied by Unzip$Ext environment vari‐
              able. During extraction, filename extensions that match one of the  items  in  this
              extension list are swapped in front of the base name of the extracted file.

       -:     [all  but  Acorn, VM/CMS, MVS, Tandem] allows to extract archive members into loca‐
              tions outside of the current `` extraction root  folder''.  For  security  reasons,
              unzip  normally  removes ``parent dir'' path components (``../'') from the names of
              extracted file.  This safety feature (new for version  5.50)  prevents  unzip  from
              accidentally  writing  files  to  ``sensitive'' areas outside the active extraction
              folder tree head.  The -: option lets unzip switch back to its previous, more  lib‐
              eral  behaviour,  to  allow  exact extraction of (older) archives that used ``../''
              components to create multiple directory trees at the level of the  current  extrac‐
              tion  folder.  This option does not enable writing explicitly to the root directory
              (``/'').  To achieve this, it is necessary to set the extraction target  folder  to
              root  (e.g. -d / ).  However, when the -: option is specified, it is still possible
              to implicitly write to the root directory by specifying enough ``../'' path  compo‐
              nents within the zip archive.  Use this option with extreme caution.

       -^     [Unix only] allow control characters in names of extracted ZIP archive entries.  On
              Unix, a file name may contain any (8-bit) character code with the two exception '/'
              (directory  delimiter)  and  NUL (0x00, the C string termination indicator), unless
              the specific file system has more restrictive conventions.  Generally, this  allows
              to embed ASCII control characters (or even sophisticated control sequences) in file
              names, at least on 'native' Unix file systems.  However, it may  be  highly  suspi‐
              cious  to  make  use  of  this Unix "feature".  Embedded control characters in file
              names might have nasty side effects when displayed on screen by some  listing  code
              without sufficient filtering.  And, for ordinary users, it may be difficult to han‐
              dle such file names (e.g. when trying to specify it for open, copy, move, or delete
              operations).  Therefore, unzip applies a filter by default that removes potentially
              dangerous control characters from the extracted file names. The -^ option allows to
              override this filter in the rare case that embedded filename control characters are
              to be intentionally restored.

       -2     [VMS] force unconditionally conversion of file names to ODS2-compatible names.  The
              default  is  to  exploit  the destination file system, preserving case and extended
              file name characters on an ODS5 destination file system; and applying the ODS2-com‐
              patibility file name filtering on an ODS2 destination file system.

       unzip's  default  behavior  may be modified via options placed in an environment variable.
       This can be done with any option, but it is probably most useful with the -a, -L, -C,  -q,
       -o, or -n modifiers:  make unzip auto-convert text files by default, make it convert file‐
       names from uppercase systems to lowercase, make it match names case-insensitively, make it
       quieter,  or  make  it always overwrite or never overwrite files as it extracts them.  For
       example, to make unzip act as quietly as possible, only reporting errors,  one  would  use
       one of the following commands:

         Unix Bourne shell:
              UNZIP=-qq; export UNZIP

         Unix C shell:
              setenv UNZIP -qq

         OS/2 or MS-DOS:
              set UNZIP=-qq

         VMS (quotes for lowercase):
              define UNZIP_OPTS "-qq"

       Environment  options  are,  in  effect,  considered to be just like any other command-line
       options, except that they are effectively the first options on the command line.  To over‐
       ride  an  environment  option,  one  may  use  the  ``minus  operator'' to remove it.  For
       instance, to override one of the quiet-flags in the example above, use the command

       unzip --q[other options] zipfile

       The first hyphen is the normal switch character, and the second is a minus sign, acting on
       the q option.  Thus the effect here is to cancel one quantum of quietness.  To cancel both
       quiet flags, two (or more) minuses may be used:

       unzip -t--q zipfile
       unzip ---qt zipfile

       (the two are equivalent).  This may seem awkward or confusing, but it is reasonably  intu‐
       itive:   just  ignore  the first hyphen and go from there.  It is also consistent with the
       behavior of Unix nice(1).

       As suggested by the examples above, the default variable  names  are  UNZIP_OPTS  for  VMS
       (where  the  symbol used to install unzip as a foreign command would otherwise be confused
       with the environment variable), and UNZIP for all other operating systems.   For  compati‐
       bility with zip(1), UNZIPOPT is also accepted (don't ask).  If both UNZIP and UNZIPOPT are
       defined, however, UNZIP takes precedence.  unzip's diagnostic option (-v with  no  zipfile
       name)  can  be used to check the values of all four possible unzip and zipinfo environment

       The timezone variable (TZ) should be set according to the local timezone in order for  the
       -f  and -u to operate correctly.  See the description of -f above for details.  This vari‐
       able may also be necessary to get timestamps of extracted files to be set correctly.   The
       WIN32 (Win9x/ME/NT4/2K/XP/2K3) port of unzip gets the timezone configuration from the reg‐
       istry, assuming it is correctly set in the Control Panel.  The TZ variable is ignored  for
       this port.

       Encrypted  archives  are  fully  supported  by Info-ZIP software, but due to United States
       export restrictions, de-/encryption support might be disabled  in  your  compiled  binary.
       However, since spring 2000, US export restrictions have been liberated, and our source ar‐
       chives do now include full crypt code.  In case you need binary distributions  with  crypt
       support  enabled, see the file ``WHERE'' in any Info-ZIP source or binary distribution for
       locations both inside and outside the US.

       Some compiled versions of unzip may not support decryption.  To check a version for  crypt
       support,  either  attempt  to  test or extract an encrypted archive, or else check unzip's
       diagnostic screen (see the -v option above) for ``[decryption]'' as  one  of  the  special
       compilation options.

       As noted above, the -P option may be used to supply a password on the command line, but at
       a cost in security.  The preferred decryption method is simply to extract normally;  if  a
       zipfile  member  is  encrypted, unzip will prompt for the password without echoing what is
       typed.  unzip continues to use the same password as long as it appears  to  be  valid,  by
       testing a 12-byte header on each file.  The correct password will always check out against
       the header, but there is a 1-in-256 chance that an incorrect password will as well.  (This
       is  a  security feature of the PKWARE zipfile format; it helps prevent brute-force attacks
       that might otherwise gain a large speed advantage by testing only  the  header.)   In  the
       case  that  an incorrect password is given but it passes the header test anyway, either an
       incorrect CRC will be generated for the extracted data or else unzip will fail during  the
       extraction  because  the  ``decrypted''  bytes  do  not constitute a valid compressed data

       If the first password fails the header check on some file, unzip will prompt  for  another
       password, and so on until all files are extracted.  If a password is not known, entering a
       null password (that is, just a carriage return or ``Enter'') is taken as a signal to  skip
       all  further  prompting.   Only  unencrypted  files  in  the archive(s) will thereafter be
       extracted.  (In fact, that's not quite true; older  versions  of  zip(1)  and  zipcloak(1)
       allowed  null  passwords,  so unzip checks each encrypted file to see if the null password
       works.  This may result in ``false positives'' and extraction errors, as noted above.)

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (for example,  passwords  with  accented  European
       characters) may not be portable across systems and/or other archivers.  This problem stems
       from the use of multiple encoding methods for  such  characters,  including  Latin-1  (ISO
       8859-1) and OEM code page 850.  DOS PKZIP 2.04g uses the OEM code page; Windows PKZIP 2.50
       uses Latin-1 (and is therefore incompatible with DOS PKZIP); Info-ZIP uses  the  OEM  code
       page on DOS, OS/2 and Win3.x ports but ISO coding (Latin-1 etc.) everywhere else; and Nico
       Mak's WinZip 6.x does not allow 8-bit passwords at all.  UnZip 5.3 (or newer) attempts  to
       use  the default character set first (e.g., Latin-1), followed by the alternate one (e.g.,
       OEM code page) to test passwords.  On EBCDIC systems, if both of these fail, EBCDIC encod‐
       ing will be tested as a last resort.  (EBCDIC is not tested on non-EBCDIC systems, because
       there are no known archivers that encrypt using EBCDIC encoding.)  ISO character encodings
       other  than  Latin-1  are  not  supported.  The new addition of (partially) Unicode (resp.
       UTF-8) support in UnZip 6.0 has not yet been adapted to the encryption  password  handling
       in  unzip.   On  systems  that  use UTF-8 as native character encoding, unzip simply tries
       decryption with the native UTF-8 encoded password; the  built-in  attempts  to  check  the
       password  in translated encoding have not yet been adapted for UTF-8 support and will con‐
       sequently fail.

       To use unzip to extract all members of the archive letters.zip into the current  directory
       and subdirectories below it, creating any subdirectories as necessary:

       unzip letters

       To extract all members of letters.zip into the current directory only:

       unzip -j letters

       To  test letters.zip, printing only a summary message indicating whether the archive is OK
       or not:

       unzip -tq letters

       To test all zipfiles in the current directory, printing only the summaries:

       unzip -tq \*.zip

       (The backslash before the asterisk is only required if the shell expands wildcards, as  in
       Unix;  double  quotes  could have been used instead, as in the source examples below.)  To
       extract to standard output all members of letters.zip whose names end in  .tex,  auto-con‐
       verting to the local end-of-line convention and piping the output into more(1):

       unzip -ca letters \*.tex | more

       To  extract  the  binary file paper1.dvi to standard output and pipe it to a printing pro‐

       unzip -p articles paper1.dvi | dvips

       To extract all FORTRAN and C source files--*.f, *.c,  *.h,  and  Makefile--into  the  /tmp

       unzip source.zip "*.[fch]" Makefile -d /tmp

       (the  double  quotes  are  necessary  only in Unix and only if globbing is turned on).  To
       extract all FORTRAN and C source files, regardless of case (e.g., both *.c  and  *.C,  and
       any makefile, Makefile, MAKEFILE or similar):

       unzip -C source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To  extract  any such files but convert any uppercase MS-DOS or VMS names to lowercase and
       convert the line-endings of all of the files to the local standard (without respect to any
       files that might be marked ``binary''):

       unzip -aaCL source.zip "*.[fch]" makefile -d /tmp

       To  extract  only  newer  versions  of the files already in the current directory, without
       querying (NOTE:  be careful of unzipping in one timezone a zipfile created in another--ZIP
       archives other than those created by Zip 2.1 or later contain no timezone information, and
       a ``newer'' file from an eastern timezone may, in fact, be older):

       unzip -fo sources

       To extract newer versions of the files already in the current directory and to create  any
       files not already there (same caveat as previous example):

       unzip -uo sources

       To display a diagnostic screen showing which unzip and zipinfo options are stored in envi‐
       ronment variables, whether decryption support was compiled in,  the  compiler  with  which
       unzip was compiled, etc.:

       unzip -v

       In  the  last five examples, assume that UNZIP or UNZIP_OPTS is set to -q.  To do a singly
       quiet listing:

       unzip -l file.zip

       To do a doubly quiet listing:

       unzip -ql file.zip

       (Note that the ``.zip'' is generally not necessary.)  To do a standard listing:

       unzip --ql file.zip
       unzip -l-q file.zip
       unzip -l--q file.zip
       (Extra minuses in options don't hurt.)

       The current maintainer, being a lazy sort, finds it  very  useful  to  define  a  pair  of
       aliases:   tt  for  ``unzip  -tq'' and ii for ``unzip -Z'' (or ``zipinfo'').  One may then
       simply type ``tt zipfile'' to test an archive, something that is worth making a  habit  of
       doing.   With  luck  unzip  will  report  ``No  errors detected in compressed data of zip‐
       file.zip,'' after which one may breathe a sigh of relief.

       The maintainer also finds it useful to set the UNZIP environment variable to  ``-aL''  and
       is tempted to add ``-C'' as well.  His ZIPINFO variable is set to ``-z''.

       The  exit  status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE and takes
       on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              1      one or more warning errors were encountered, but processing  completed  suc‐
                     cessfully  anyway.   This  includes  zipfiles  where  one  or more files was
                     skipped due to unsupported compression method or encryption with an  unknown

              2      a  generic  error  in  the zipfile format was detected.  Processing may have
                     completed  successfully  anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles  created  by  other
                     archivers have simple work-arounds.

              3      a  severe  error  in  the  zipfile format was detected.  Processing probably
                     failed immediately.

              4      unzip was unable to allocate memory for one or more buffers  during  program

              5      unzip  was  unable  to allocate memory or unable to obtain a tty to read the
                     decryption password(s).

              6      unzip was unable to allocate memory during decompression to disk.

              7      unzip was unable to allocate memory during in-memory decompression.

              8      [currently not used]

              9      the specified zipfiles were not found.

              10     invalid options were specified on the command line.

              11     no matching files were found.

              50     the disk is (or was) full during extraction.

              51     the end of the ZIP archive was encountered prematurely.

              80     the user aborted unzip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              81     testing or extraction of one or more files failed due  to  unsupported  com‐
                     pression methods or unsupported decryption.

              82     no files were found due to bad decryption password(s).  (If even one file is
                     successfully processed, however, the exit status is 1.)

       VMS interprets standard Unix (or PC) return values as other,  scarier-looking  things,  so
       unzip  instead  maps them into VMS-style status codes.  The current mapping is as follows:
       1 (success) for normal exit, 0x7fff0001 for warning  errors,  and  (0x7fff000?  +  16*nor‐
       mal_unzip_exit_status)  for  all other errors, where the `?' is 2 (error) for unzip values
       2, 9-11 and 80-82, and 4 (fatal error) for the remaining ones (3-8, 50, 51).  In addition,
       there is a compilation option to expand upon this behavior:  defining RETURN_CODES results
       in a human-readable explanation of what the error status means.

       Multi-part archives are not yet supported, except in conjunction  with  zip.   (All  parts
       must  be  concatenated together in order, and then ``zip -F'' (for zip 2.x) or ``zip -FF''
       (for zip 3.x) must be performed on the concatenated archive in order to ``fix'' it.  Also,
       zip  3.0 and later can combine multi-part (split) archives into a combined single-file ar‐
       chive using ``zip -s- inarchive -O outarchive''.  See the  zip  3  manual  page  for  more
       information.)  This will definitely be corrected in the next major release.

       Archives read from standard input are not yet supported, except with funzip (and then only
       the first member of the archive can be extracted).

       Archives encrypted with 8-bit passwords (e.g., passwords with  accented  European  charac‐
       ters)  may  not  be portable across systems and/or other archivers.  See the discussion in
       DECRYPTION above.

       unzip's -M (``more'') option tries to take into account automatic wrapping of long  lines.
       However, the code may fail to detect the correct wrapping locations. First, TAB characters
       (and similar control sequences) are not taken into account, they are handled  as  ordinary
       printable  characters.   Second,  depending  on the actual system / OS port, unzip may not
       detect the true screen geometry but rather rely on  "commonly  used"  default  dimensions.
       The  correct  handling  of tabs would require the implementation of a query for the actual
       tabulator setup on the output console.

       Dates, times and permissions of stored directories are not restored except under Unix. (On
       Windows NT and successors, timestamps are now restored.)

       [MS-DOS]  When extracting or testing files from an archive on a defective floppy diskette,
       if the ``Fail'' option is chosen from DOS's ``Abort, Retry, Fail?''  message,  older  ver‐
       sions of unzip may hang the system, requiring a reboot.  This problem appears to be fixed,
       but control-C (or control-Break) can still be used to terminate unzip.

       Under DEC Ultrix, unzip would sometimes fail on long zipfiles (bad CRC, not always  repro‐
       ducible).  This was apparently due either to a hardware bug (cache memory) or an operating
       system bug (improper handling of page faults?).  Since Ultrix has been abandoned in  favor
       of Digital Unix (OSF/1), this may not be an issue anymore.

       [Unix]  Unix special files such as FIFO buffers (named pipes), block devices and character
       devices are not restored even if they are somehow represented  in  the  zipfile,  nor  are
       hard-linked  files  relinked.  Basically the only file types restored by unzip are regular
       files, directories and symbolic (soft) links.

       [OS/2] Extended attributes for existing directories are only updated if  the  -o  (``over‐
       write  all'')  option  is  given.   This  is a limitation of the operating system; because
       directories only have a creation time associated with them, unzip has no way to  determine
       whether the stored attributes are newer or older than those on disk.  In practice this may
       mean a two-pass approach is required:  first unpack the archive normally (with or  without
       freshening/updating  existing  files),  then  overwrite  just the directory entries (e.g.,
       ``unzip -o foo */'').

       [VMS] When extracting to another directory, only the [.foo] syntax is accepted for the  -d
       option;  the simple Unix foo syntax is silently ignored (as is the less common VMS foo.dir

       [VMS] When the file being extracted already exists, unzip's query  only  allows  skipping,
       overwriting  or renaming; there should additionally be a choice for creating a new version
       of the file.  In fact, the ``overwrite'' choice does create a new version; the old version
       is not overwritten or deleted.

       funzip(1), zip(1), zipcloak(1), zipgrep(1), zipinfo(1), zipnote(1), zipsplit(1)

       The Info-ZIP home page is currently at
       ftp://ftp.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/ .

       The  primary Info-ZIP authors (current semi-active members of the Zip-Bugs workgroup) are:
       Ed Gordon (Zip, general maintenance, shared code, Zip64, Win32, Unix, Unicode);  Christian
       Spieler  (UnZip maintenance coordination, VMS, MS-DOS, Win32, shared code, general Zip and
       UnZip integration and optimization); Onno van der Linden (Zip); Mike White (Win32, Windows
       GUI, Windows DLLs); Kai Uwe Rommel (OS/2, Win32); Steven M. Schweda (VMS, Unix, support of
       new features); Paul Kienitz (Amiga, Win32, Unicode); Chris Herborth  (BeOS,  QNX,  Atari);
       Jonathan  Hudson  (SMS/QDOS);  Sergio  Monesi (Acorn RISC OS); Harald Denker (Atari, MVS);
       John Bush (Solaris, Amiga); Hunter Goatley (VMS, Info-ZIP Site maintenance); Steve  Salis‐
       bury  (Win32);  Steve Miller (Windows CE GUI), Johnny Lee (MS-DOS, Win32, Zip64); and Dave
       Smith (Tandem NSK).

       The following people were former members of the Info-ZIP development  group  and  provided
       major  contributions  to key parts of the current code: Greg ``Cave Newt'' Roelofs (UnZip,
       unshrink decompression); Jean-loup  Gailly  (deflate  compression);  Mark  Adler  (inflate
       decompression, fUnZip).

       The  author of the original unzip code upon which Info-ZIP's was based is Samuel H. Smith;
       Carl Mascott did the first Unix port; and David P.  Kirschbaum organized and led  Info-ZIP
       in  its early days with Keith Petersen hosting the original mailing list at WSMR-SimTel20.
       The full list of contributors to UnZip has grown quite large; please refer to the CONTRIBS
       file in the UnZip source distribution for a relatively complete version.

       v1.2   15 Mar 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.0    9 Sep 89   Samuel H. Smith
       v2.x   fall 1989   many Usenet contributors
       v3.0    1 May 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v3.1   15 Aug 90   Info-ZIP (DPK, consolidator)
       v4.0    1 Dec 90   Info-ZIP (GRR, maintainer)
       v4.1   12 May 91   Info-ZIP
       v4.2   20 Mar 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.0   21 Aug 92   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.01  15 Jan 93   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.1    7 Feb 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.11   2 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.12  28 Aug 94   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.2   30 Apr 96   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.3   22 Apr 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.31  31 May 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.32   3 Nov 97   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, GRR)
       v5.4   28 Nov 98   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.41  16 Apr 00   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.42  14 Jan 01   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.5   17 Feb 02   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.51  22 May 04   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v5.52  28 Feb 05   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)
       v6.0   20 Apr 09   Info-ZIP (Zip-Bugs subgroup, SPC)

Info-ZIP                               20 April 2009 (v6.0)                              UNZIP(1)

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