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ZIP(1)                               General Commands Manual                               ZIP(1)

       zip - package and compress (archive) files

       zip  [-aABcdDeEfFghjklLmoqrRSTuvVwXyz!@$]  [--longoption ...]  [-b path] [-n suffixes] [-t
       date] [-tt date] [zipfile [file ...]]  [-xi list]

       zipcloak (see separate man page)

       zipnote (see separate man page)

       zipsplit (see separate man page)

       Note:  Command line processing in zip has been changed to support long options and  handle
       all  options  and arguments more consistently.  Some old command lines that depend on com‐
       mand line inconsistencies may no longer work.

       zip is a compression and file packaging  utility  for  Unix,  VMS,  MSDOS,  OS/2,  Windows
       9x/NT/XP,  Minix, Atari, Macintosh, Amiga, and Acorn RISC OS.  It is analogous to a combi‐
       nation of the Unix commands tar(1) and compress(1) and  is  compatible  with  PKZIP  (Phil
       Katz's ZIP for MSDOS systems).

       A  companion  program  (unzip(1)) unpacks zip archives.  The zip and unzip(1) programs can
       work with archives produced by PKZIP (supporting most PKZIP features up to  PKZIP  version
       4.6),  and PKZIP and PKUNZIP can work with archives produced by zip (with some exceptions,
       notably streamed archives, but recent changes in the zip file standard may facilitate bet‐
       ter  compatibility).   zip version 3.0 is compatible with PKZIP 2.04 and also supports the
       Zip64 extensions of PKZIP 4.5 which allow archives as well as files to exceed the previous
       2  GB  limit  (4  GB in some cases).  zip also now supports bzip2 compression if the bzip2
       library is included when zip is compiled.  Note that PKUNZIP  1.10  cannot  extract  files
       produced  by  PKZIP  2.04  or zip 3.0. You must use PKUNZIP 2.04g or unzip 5.0p1 (or later
       versions) to extract them.

       See the EXAMPLES section at the bottom of this page for examples of some typical  uses  of

       Large Archives and Zip64.   zip  automatically uses the Zip64 extensions when files larger
       than 4 GB are added to an archive, an archive containing Zip64 entries is updated (if  the
       resulting  archive  still  needs Zip64), the size of the archive will exceed 4 GB, or when
       the number of entries in the archive will exceed about 64K.  Zip64 is also  used  for  ar‐
       chives streamed from standard input as the size of such archives are not known in advance,
       but the option -fz- can be used to force zip to create PKZIP  2  compatible  archives  (as
       long as Zip64 extensions are not needed).  You must use a PKZIP 4.5 compatible unzip, such
       as unzip 6.0 or later, to extract files using the Zip64 extensions.

       In addition, streamed archives, entries encrypted with standard encryption, or  split  ar‐
       chives  created with the pause option may not be compatible with PKZIP as data descriptors
       are used and PKZIP at the time of this writing does  not  support  data  descriptors  (but
       recent  changes in the PKWare published zip standard now include some support for the data
       descriptor format zip uses).

       Mac OS X.  Though previous Mac versions had their own zip port, zip supports Mac OS  X  as
       part of the Unix port and most Unix features apply.  References to "MacOS" below generally
       refer to MacOS versions older than OS X.  Support for some Mac OS features in the Unix Mac
       OS X port, such as resource forks, is expected in the next zip release.

       For  a brief help on zip and unzip, run each without specifying any parameters on the com‐
       mand line.

       The program is useful for packaging a set of files for distribution; for archiving  files;
       and for saving disk space by temporarily compressing unused files or directories.

       The  zip  program  puts one or more compressed files into a single zip archive, along with
       information about the files (name, path, date, time of last modification, protection,  and
       check  information to verify file integrity).  An entire directory structure can be packed
       into a zip archive with a single command.  Compression ratios of 2:1 to 3:1 are common for
       text  files.   zip has one compression method (deflation) and can also store files without
       compression.  (If bzip2 support is added, zip can also compress using  bzip2  compression,
       but  such entries require a reasonably modern unzip to decompress.  When bzip2 compression
       is selected, it replaces deflation as the default method.)  zip automatically chooses  the
       better  of  the two (deflation or store or, if bzip2 is selected, bzip2 or store) for each
       file to be compressed.

       Command format.  The basic command format is

              zip options archive inpath inpath ...

       where archive is a new or existing zip archive and inpath is  a  directory  or  file  path
       optionally  including wildcards.  When given the name of an existing zip archive, zip will
       replace identically named entries in the zip  archive  (matching  the  relative  names  as
       stored  in  the archive) or add entries for new names.  For example, if foo.zip exists and
       contains foo/file1 and foo/file2, and the directory foo contains the files  foo/file1  and
       foo/file3, then:

              zip -r foo.zip foo

       or more concisely

              zip -r foo foo

       will  replace foo/file1 in foo.zip and add foo/file3 to foo.zip.  After this, foo.zip con‐
       tains foo/file1, foo/file2, and foo/file3, with foo/file2 unchanged from before.

       So if before the zip command is executed foo.zip has:

               foo/file1 foo/file2

       and directory foo has:

               file1 file3

       then foo.zip will have:

               foo/file1 foo/file2 foo/file3

       where foo/file1 is replaced and foo/file3 is new.

       -@ file lists.  If a file list is specified as -@ [Not on MacOS], zip takes  the  list  of
       input files from standard input instead of from the command line.  For example,

              zip -@ foo

       will store the files listed one per line on stdin in foo.zip.

       Under  Unix,  this  option can be used to powerful effect in conjunction with the find (1)
       command.  For example, to archive all the C source files in the current directory and  its

              find . -name "*.[ch]" -print | zip source -@

       (note that the pattern must be quoted to keep the shell from expanding it).

       Streaming input and output.   zip  will  also  accept  a single dash ("-") as the zip file
       name, in which case it will write the zip file to standard output, allowing the output  to
       be piped to another program. For example:

              zip -r - . | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       would  write  the zip output directly to a tape with the specified block size for the pur‐
       pose of backing up the current directory.

       zip also accepts a single dash ("-") as the name of a file to be compressed, in which case
       it  will  read  the file from standard input, allowing zip to take input from another pro‐
       gram. For example:

              tar cf - . | zip backup -

       would compress the output of the tar command for the purpose of  backing  up  the  current
       directory.  This generally produces better compression than the previous example using the
       -r option because zip can take advantage of redundancy between files. The  backup  can  be
       restored using the command

              unzip -p backup | tar xf -

       When  no  zip  file name is given and stdout is not a terminal, zip acts as a filter, com‐
       pressing standard input to standard output.  For example,

              tar cf - . | zip | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       is equivalent to

              tar cf - . | zip - - | dd of=/dev/nrst0 obs=16k

       zip archives created in this manner can be extracted with the program funzip which is pro‐
       vided  in  the unzip package, or by gunzip which is provided in the gzip package (but some
       gunzip may not support this if zip used the Zip64 extensions). For example:

              dd if=/dev/nrst0  ibs=16k | funzip | tar xvf -

       The stream can also be saved to a file and unzip used.

       If Zip64 support for large files and archives is enabled and zip is used as a filter,  zip
       creates  a  Zip64  archive that requires a PKZIP 4.5 or later compatible unzip to read it.
       This is to avoid amgibuities in the zip file structure as defined in the current zip stan‐
       dard  (PKWARE  AppNote)  where  the  decision to use Zip64 needs to be made before data is
       written for the entry, but for a stream the size of the data is not known at  that  point.
       If  the  data is known to be smaller than 4 GB, the option -fz- can be used to prevent use
       of Zip64, but zip will exit with an error if Zip64 was in fact needed.  zip 3 and  unzip 6
       and later can read archives with Zip64 entries.  Also, zip removes the Zip64 extensions if
       not needed when archive entries are copied (see the -U (--copy) option).

       When directing the output to another file, note that all options should be before the  re‐
       direction including -x.  For example:

              zip archive "*.h" "*.c" -x donotinclude.h orthis.h > tofile

       Zip files.   When  changing  an existing zip archive, zip will write a temporary file with
       the new contents, and only replace the old one when the process of creating the  new  ver‐
       sion has been completed without error.

       If the name of the zip archive does not contain an extension, the extension .zip is added.
       If the name already contains an extension other than .zip, the existing extension is  kept
       unchanged.   However, split archives (archives split over multiple files) require the .zip
       extension on the last split.

       Scanning and reading files.  When zip starts, it scans for files to process  (if  needed).
       If  this  scan takes longer than about 5 seconds, zip will display a "Scanning files" mes‐
       sage and start displaying progress dots every 2 seconds or  every  so  many  entries  pro‐
       cessed,  whichever  takes  longer.   If there is more than 2 seconds between dots it could
       indicate that finding each file is taking time and could mean a  slow  network  connection
       for  example.   (Actually  the initial file scan is a two-step process where the directory
       scan is followed by a sort and these two steps are separated with a space in the dots.  If
       updating  an existing archive, a space also appears between the existing file scan and the
       new file scan.)  The scanning files dots are not controlled by the -ds  dot  size  option,
       but the dots are turned off by the -q quiet option.  The -sf show files option can be used
       to scan for files and get the list of files scanned without actually processing them.

       If zip is not able to read a file, it issues a warning but continues.  See the -MM  option
       below  for  more  on  how zip handles patterns that are not matched and files that are not
       readable.  If some files were skipped, a warning is issued at the end of the zip operation
       noting how many files were read and how many skipped.

       Command modes.   zip now supports two distinct types of command modes, external and inter‐
       nal.  The external modes (add, update, and freshen) read files from the  file  system  (as
       well  as  from  an  existing  archive)  while the internal modes (delete and copy) operate
       exclusively on entries in an existing archive.

              Update existing entries and add new files.  If the archive does  not  exist  create
              it.  This is the default mode.

       update (-u)
              Update  existing entries if newer on the file system and add new files.  If the ar‐
              chive does not exist issue warning then create a new archive.

       freshen (-f)
              Update existing entries of an archive if newer on the file system.   Does  not  add
              new files to the archive.

       delete (-d)
              Select entries in an existing archive and delete them.

       copy (-U)
              Select  entries  in  an  existing archive and copy them to a new archive.  This new
              mode is similar to update but command line patterns select entries in the  existing
              archive  rather  than  files  from  the file system and it uses the --out option to
              write the resulting archive to a new file rather than update the existing  archive,
              leaving the original archive unchanged.

       The  new  File  Sync  option  (-FS) is also considered a new mode, though it is similar to
       update.  This mode synchronizes the archive with the files on the OS, only replacing files
       in the archive if the file time or size of the OS file is different, adding new files, and
       deleting entries from the archive where there is no  matching  file.   As  this  mode  can
       delete entries from the archive, consider making a backup copy of the archive.

       Also see -DF for creating difference archives.

       See each option description below for details and the EXAMPLES section below for examples.

       Split archives.   zip version 3.0 and later can create split archives.  A split archive is
       a standard zip archive split over multiple files.  (Note that split archives are not  just
       archives  split in to pieces, as the offsets of entries are now based on the start of each
       split.  Concatenating the pieces together will invalidate these  offsets,  but  unzip  can
       usually  deal  with  it.  zip will usually refuse to process such a spliced archive unless
       the -FF fix option is used to fix the offsets.)

       One use of split archives is storing a large archive on multiple removable media.   For  a
       split  archive with 20 split files the files are typically named (replace ARCHIVE with the
       name of your archive) ARCHIVE.z01, ARCHIVE.z02, ..., ARCHIVE.z19, ARCHIVE.zip.  Note  that
       the last file is the .zip file.  In contrast, spanned archives are the original multi-disk
       archive generally requiring floppy disks and using volume labels to  store  disk  numbers.
       zip  supports  split archives but not spanned archives, though a procedure exists for con‐
       verting split archives of the right size to spanned archives.  The reverse is  also  true,
       where  each file of a spanned archive can be copied in order to files with the above names
       to create a split archive.

       Use -s to set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given  as  a  number
       followed  optionally  by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB) (the default is m).  The
       -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable media,  for
       example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though  zip  does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O (--output-file
       or --out) to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the
       resulting  archive  to  outarchive.zip.   If  inarchive.zip  is  split then outarchive.zip
       defaults to the same split size.  Be aware that if outarchive.zip and any split files that
       are created with it already exist, these are always overwritten as needed without warning.
       This may be changed in the future.

       Unicode.  Though the zip standard requires storing paths in an archive  using  a  specific
       character  set, in practice zips have stored paths in archives in whatever the local char‐
       acter set is.  This creates problems when an archive is created or  updated  on  a  system
       using  one  character set and then extracted on another system using a different character
       set.  When compiled with Unicode support enabled on platforms that  support  wide  charac‐
       ters,  zip  now stores, in addition to the standard local path for backward compatibility,
       the UTF-8 translation of the path.  This provides a common  universal  character  set  for
       storing  paths that allows these paths to be fully extracted on other systems that support
       Unicode and to match as close as possible on systems that don't.

       On Win32 systems where paths are internally stored as Unicode but represented in the local
       character  set, it's possible that some paths will be skipped during a local character set
       directory scan.  zip with Unicode support now can read and store these paths.   Note  that
       Win 9x systems and FAT file systems don't fully support Unicode.

       Be  aware  that console windows on Win32 and Unix, for example, sometimes don't accurately
       show all characters due to how each operating system switches in character sets  for  dis‐
       play.   However,  directory  navigation  tools should show the correct paths if the needed
       fonts are loaded.

       Command line format.  This version of zip has updated command line processing and  support
       for long options.

       Short options take the form

              -s[-][s[-]...][value][=value][ value]

       where s is a one or two character short option.  A short option that takes a value is last
       in an argument and anything after it is taken as the value.  If the option can be  negated
       and  "-" immediately follows the option, the option is negated.  Short options can also be
       given as separate arguments

              -s[-][value][=value][ value] -s[-][value][=value][ value] ...

       Short options in general take values either as part of the same argument or as the follow‐
       ing argument.  An optional = is also supported.  So





              -tt mmddyyyy

       all  work.  The -x and -i options accept lists of values and use a slightly different for‐
       mat described below.  See the -x and -i options.

       Long options take the form

              --longoption[-][=value][ value]

       where the option starts with --, has a multicharacter name, can include a trailing dash to
       negate  the  option  (if  the  option supports it), and can have a value (option argument)
       specified by preceding it with = (no spaces).  Values can also follow the argument.  So



              --before-date mmddyyyy

       both work.

       Long option names can be shortened to the shortest unique abbreviation.   See  the  option
       descriptions below for which support long options.  To avoid confusion, avoid abbreviating
       a negatable option with an embedded dash ("-") at the dash if you plan to negate  it  (the
       parser  would consider a trailing dash, such as for the option --some-option using --some-
       as the option, as part of the name rather than a negating dash).  This may be  changed  to
       force the last dash in --some- to be negating in the future.

              [Systems using EBCDIC] Translate file to ASCII format.

              Adjust self-extracting executable archive.  A self-extracting executable archive is
              created by prepending the SFX stub to an existing archive. The -A option tells  zip
              to adjust the entry offsets stored in the archive to take into account this "pream‐
              ble" data.

       Note: self-extracting archives for the Amiga are a special case.   At  present,  only  the
       Amiga  port  of  zip is capable of adjusting or updating these without corrupting them. -J
       can be used to remove the SFX stub if other updates need to be made.

              [WIN32]  Once archive is created (and tested if -T is used, which is  recommended),
              clear the archive bits of files processed.  WARNING: Once the bits are cleared they
              are cleared.  You may want to use the -sf show files option to store  the  list  of
              files  processed  in  case  the  archive operation must be repeated.  Also consider
              using the -MM must match option.  Be sure to check out -DF as a possibly better way
              to do incremental backups.

              [WIN32]   Only  include  files  that have the archive bit set.  Directories are not
              stored when -AS is used, though by default the paths of entries, including directo‐
              ries, are stored as usual and can be used by most unzips to recreate directories.

              The archive bit is set by the operating system when a file is modified and, if used
              with -AC, -AS can provide an incremental backup capability.  However, other  appli‐
              cations  can modify the archive bit and it may not be a reliable indicator of which
              files have changed since the last archive operation.  Alternative  ways  to  create
              incremental  backups  are  using  -t to use file dates, though this won't catch old
              files copied to directories being archived, and -DF to create  a  differential  ar‐

              [VM/CMS and MVS] force file to be read binary (default is text).

       -Bn    [TANDEM] set Edit/Enscribe formatting options with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  1: Use LF rather than CR/LF as delimiter (Edit/Enscribe)
              bit  2: Space fill record to maximum record length (Enscribe)
              bit  3: Trim trailing space (Enscribe)
              bit  8: Force 30K (Expand) large read for unstructured files

       -b path
       --temp-path path
              Use the specified path for the temporary zip archive. For example:

                     zip -b /tmp stuff *

              will put the temporary zip archive in the directory /tmp, copying over stuff.zip to
              the current directory when done. This option is useful when  updating  an  existing
              archive  and the file system containing this old archive does not have enough space
              to hold both old and new archives at the same time.  It may  also  be  useful  when
              streaming  in  some  cases to avoid the need for data descriptors.  Note that using
              this option may require zip take additional time to copy the archive file when done
              to the destination file system.

              Add  one-line  comments for each file.  File operations (adding, updating) are done
              first, and the user is then prompted for a one-line comment for each  file.   Enter
              the comment followed by return, or just return for no comment.

              [VMS]  Preserve case all on VMS.  Negating this option (-C-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS2 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C2-) downcases.

              [VMS]  Preserve case ODS5 on VMS.  Negating this option (-C5-) downcases.

              Remove (delete) entries from a zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk foo/harry/\* \*.o

              will  remove  the  entry foo/tom/junk, all of the files that start with foo/harry/,
              and all of the files that end with .o (in any  path).   Note  that  shell  pathname
              expansion  has  been inhibited with backslashes, so that zip can see the asterisks,
              enabling zip to match on the contents of the zip archive instead of the contents of
              the  current  directory.   (The backslashes are not used on MSDOS-based platforms.)
              Can also use quotes to escape the asterisks as in

                     zip -d foo foo/tom/junk "foo/harry/*" "*.o"

              Not escaping the asterisks on a system where  the  shell  expands  wildcards  could
              result in the asterisks being converted to a list of files in the current directory
              and that list used to delete entries from the archive.

              Under MSDOS, -d is case sensitive when it matches names in the zip  archive.   This
              requires  that  file names be entered in upper case if they were zipped by PKZIP on
              an MSDOS system.  (We considered making this  case  insensitive  on  systems  where
              paths  were  case  insensitive,  but  it is possible the archive came from a system
              where case does matter and the archive could include both Bar and bar  as  separate
              files in the archive.)  But see the new option -ic to ignore case in the archive.

              Display running byte counts showing the bytes zipped and the bytes to go.

              Display running count of entries zipped and entries to go.

              Display  dots  while  each  entry  is  zipped  (except on ports that have their own
              progress indicator).  See -ds below for setting dot size.  The  default  is  a  dot
              every  10 MB of input file processed.  The -v option also displays dots (previously
              at a much higher rate than this but now -v also defaults to 10 MB) and this rate is
              also controlled by -ds.

              [MacOS]  Include only data-fork of files zipped into the archive.  Good for export‐
              ing files to foreign operating-systems.  Resource-forks will be ignored at all.

              Display progress dots for the archive instead of for each file.  The command

                         zip -qdgds 10m

              will turn off most output except dots every 10 MB.

       -ds size
       --dot-size size
              Set amount of input file processed for each dot displayed.  See -dd to enable  dis‐
              playing  dots.   Setting this option implies -dd.  Size is in the format nm where n
              is a number and m is a multiplier.  Currently m can be k (KB), m (MB), g (GB), or t
              (TB),  so  if n is 100 and m is k, size would be 100k which is 100 KB.  The default
              is 10 MB.

              The -v option also displays dots and now defaults to 10 MB also.  This rate is also
              controlled by this option.  A size of 0 turns dots off.

              This  option  does  not  control  the dots from the "Scanning files" message as zip
              scans for input files.  The dot size for that is fixed at 2 seconds or a fixed num‐
              ber of entries, whichever is longer.

              Display the uncompressed size of each entry.

              Display  the  volume  (disk)  number  each  entry is being read from, if reading an
              existing archive, and being written to.

              Do not create entries in the zip archive for directories.   Directory  entries  are
              created  by  default so that their attributes can be saved in the zip archive.  The
              environment variable ZIPOPT can be used to change the default options. For  example
              under Unix with sh:

                     ZIPOPT="-D"; export ZIPOPT

              (The  variable  ZIPOPT  can be used for any option, including -i and -x using a new
              option format detailed below, and can include several options.) The option -D is  a
              shorthand  for -x "*/" but the latter previously could not be set as default in the
              ZIPOPT environment variable as the contents of ZIPOPT gets inserted near the begin‐
              ning of the command line and the file list had to end at the end of the line.

              This version of zip does allow -x and -i options in ZIPOPT if the form

               -x file file ... @

              is used, where the @ (an argument that is just @) terminates the list.

              Create  an  archive  that contains all new and changed files since the original ar‐
              chive was created.  For this to work, the input file  list  and  current  directory
              must be the same as during the original zip operation.

              For example, if the existing archive was created using

                     zip -r foofull .

              from the bar directory, then the command

                     zip -r foofull . -DF --out foonew

              also  from  the bar directory creates the archive foonew with just the files not in
              foofull and the files where the size or file time of the files do not  match  those
              in foofull.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local
              timezone in order for this option to work correctly.  A change  in  timezone  since
              the  original  archive  was created could result in no times matching and all files
              being included.

              A possible approach to backing up a directory might be to create a  normal  archive
              of  the  contents of the directory as a full backup, then use this option to create
              incremental backups.

              Encrypt the contents of the zip archive using a password which is  entered  on  the
              terminal in response to a prompt (this will not be echoed; if standard error is not
              a tty, zip will exit with an error).  The password prompt is repeated to  save  the
              user from typing errors.

              [OS/2] Use the .LONGNAME Extended Attribute (if found) as filename.

              Replace (freshen) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified
              more recently than the version already in the zip archive; unlike the update option
              (-u) this will not add files that are not already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -f foo

              This command should be run from the same directory from which the original zip com‐
              mand was run, since paths stored in zip archives are always relative.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local
              timezone in order for the -f, -u and -o options to work correctly.

              The  reasons  behind  this  are somewhat subtle but have to do with the differences
              between the Unix-format file times (always in GMT) and most of the other  operating
              systems  (always  local  time)  and the necessity to compare the two.  A typical TZ
              value is ``MET-1MEST'' (Middle European time with automatic adjustment  for  ``sum‐
              mertime'' or Daylight Savings Time).

              The  format  is TTThhDDD, where TTT is the time zone such as MET, hh is the differ‐
              ence between GMT and local time such as -1 above, and DDD is  the  time  zone  when
              daylight savings time is in effect.  Leave off the DDD if there is no daylight sav‐
              ings time.  For the US Eastern time zone EST5EDT.

              Fix the zip archive. The -F option can be used if some portions of the archive  are
              missing,  but requires a reasonably intact central directory.  The input archive is
              scanned as usual, but zip will ignore some problems.  The resulting archive  should
              be valid, but any inconsistent entries will be left out.

              When doubled as in -FF, the archive is scanned from the beginning and zip scans for
              special signatures to identify the limits between the archive members.  The  single
              -F  is  more  reliable  if  the archive is not too much damaged, so try this option

              If the archive is too damaged or the end has been  truncated,  you  must  use  -FF.
              This is a change from zip 2.32, where the -F option is able to read a truncated ar‐
              chive.  The -F option now more reliably fixes archives with minor  damage  and  the
              -FF option is needed to fix archives where -F might have been sufficient before.

              Neither  option  will  recover  archives  that have been incorrectly transferred in
              ascii mode instead of binary. After the repair, the -t option  of  unzip  may  show
              that some files have a bad CRC. Such files cannot be recovered; you can remove them
              from the archive using the -d option of zip.

              Note that -FF may have trouble fixing archives that include an embedded zip archive
              that  was stored (without compression) in the archive and, depending on the damage,
              it may find the entries in the embedded archive rather  than  the  archive  itself.
              Try -F first as it does not have this problem.

              The  format  of the fix commands have changed.  For example, to fix the damaged ar‐
              chive foo.zip,

                     zip -F foo --out foofix

              tries to read the entries  normally,  copying  good  entries  to  the  new  archive
              foofix.zip.   If  this  doesn't  work, as when the archive is truncated, or if some
              entries you know are in the archive are missed, then try

                     zip -FF foo --out foofixfix

              and compare the resulting archive to the archive created by -F.  The -FF option may
              create an inconsistent archive.  Depending on what is damaged, you can then use the
              -F option to fix that archive.

              A split archive with missing split files can be fixed using -F if you have the last
              split of the archive (the .zip file).  If this file is missing, you must use -FF to
              fix the archive, which will prompt you for the splits you have.

              Currently the fix options can't recover entries that have a  bad  checksum  or  are
              otherwise damaged.

       --fifo [Unix]   Normally zip skips reading any FIFOs (named pipes) encountered, as zip can
              hang if the FIFO is not being fed.  This option tells zip to read the  contents  of
              any FIFO it finds.

              Synchronize  the contents of an archive with the files on the OS.  Normally when an
              archive is updated, new files are added and changed files  are  updated  but  files
              that  no  longer  exist  on  the  OS are not deleted from the archive.  This option
              enables a new mode that checks entries in the archive against the file system.   If
              the  file time and file size of the entry matches that of the OS file, the entry is
              copied from the old archive instead of being read from the  file  system  and  com‐
              pressed.   If  the  OS file has changed, the entry is read and compressed as usual.
              If the entry in the archive does not match a file on the OS, the entry is  deleted.
              Enabling  this option should create archives that are the same as new archives, but
              since existing entries are copied instead of compressed, updating an  existing  ar‐
              chive with -FS can be much faster than creating a new archive.  Also consider using
              -u for updating an archive.

              For this option to work, the archive should be updated from the same  directory  it
              was created in so the relative paths match.  If few files are being copied from the
              old archive, it may be faster to create a new archive instead.

              Note that the timezone environment variable TZ should be set according to the local
              timezone  in  order  for this option to work correctly.  A change in timezone since
              the original archive was created could result in no times matching  and  recompres‐
              sion of all files.

              This  option  deletes files from the archive.  If you need to preserve the original
              archive, make a copy of the archive first or use the --out  option  to  output  the
              updated  archive  to  a new file.  Even though it may be slower, creating a new ar‐
              chive with a new archive name is safer, avoids mismatches between  archive  and  OS
              paths, and is preferred.

              Grow  (append to) the specified zip archive, instead of creating a new one. If this
              operation fails, zip attempts to restore the archive to its original state. If  the
              restoration  fails, the archive might become corrupted. This option is ignored when
              there's no existing archive or when at least one archive member must be updated  or

              Display  the  zip  help  information (this also appears if zip is run with no argu‐

              Display extended help including more on command line format, pattern matching,  and
              more obscure options.

       -i files
       --include files
              Include only the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo . -i \*.c

              which  will  include only the files that end in .c in the current directory and its
              subdirectories. (Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              PKZIP does not allow recursion in directories other than  the  current  one.)   The
              backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that the name matching is per‐
              formed by zip at all directory levels.  [This is for Unix and other systems where \
              escapes  the  next character.  For other systems where the shell does not process *
              do not use \ and the above is

                     zip -r foo . -i *.c

              Examples are for Unix unless otherwise specified.]  So to include dir, a  directory
              directly under the current directory, use

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/\*


                     zip -r foo . -i "dir/*"

              to  match paths such as dir/a and dir/b/file.c [on ports without wildcard expansion
              in the shell such as MSDOS and Windows

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/*

              is used.]  Note that currently the trailing / is needed for directories (as in

                     zip -r foo . -i dir/

              to include directory dir).

              The long option form of the first example is

                     zip -r foo . --include \*.c

              and does the same thing as the short option form.

              Though the command syntax used to require -i at the end of the command  line,  this
              version  actually  allows -i (or --include) anywhere.  The list of files terminates
              at the next argument starting with -, the end of the command line, or the list ter‐
              minator @ (an argument that is just @).  So the above can be given as

                     zip -i \*.c @ -r foo .

              for  example.   There  must  be  a space between the option and the first file of a
              list.  For just one file you can use the single value form

                     zip -i\*.c -r foo .

              (no space between option and value) or

                     zip --include=\*.c -r foo .

              as additional examples.  The single value forms are not  recommended  because  they
              can  be  confusing  and, in particular, the -ifile format can cause problems if the
              first letter of file combines with i to form a two-letter option starting  with  i.
              Use -sc to see how your command line will be parsed.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo  . -i AT include.lst

              which  will  only include the files in the current directory and its subdirectories
              that match the patterns in the file include.lst.

              Files to -i and -x are patterns matching internal archive paths.  See -R  for  more
              on patterns.

              [Acorn  RISC  OS] Don't scan through Image files.  When used, zip will not consider
              Image files (eg. DOS partitions or Spark archives when SparkFS is loaded) as direc‐
              tories but will store them as single files.

              For  example,  if you have SparkFS loaded, zipping a Spark archive will result in a
              zipfile containing a directory (and its content) while using the  'I'  option  will
              result  in  a  zipfile  containing a Spark archive. Obviously this second case will
              also be obtained (without the 'I' option) if SparkFS isn't loaded.

              [VMS, WIN32] Ignore case when matching archive entries.  This option is only avail‐
              able  on systems where the case of files is ignored.  On systems with case-insensi‐
              tive file systems, case is normally ignored when matching files on the file  system
              but is not ignored for -f (freshen), -d (delete), -U (copy), and similar modes when
              matching against archive entries (currently -f ignores case on VMS) because archive
              entries  can  be  from  systems  where case does matter and names that are the same
              except for case can exist in an archive.  The -ic option makes  all  matching  case
              insensitive.   This  can result in multiple archive entries matching a command line

              Store just the name of a saved file (junk the path), and  do  not  store  directory
              names.  By  default,  zip  will store the full path (relative to the current direc‐

              [MacOS] record Fullpath (+ Volname). The complete path  including  volume  will  be
              stored. By default the relative path will be stored.

              Strip any prepended data (e.g. a SFX stub) from the archive.

              Attempt  to  convert  the names and paths to conform to MSDOS, store only the MSDOS
              attribute (just the user write attribute from Unix), and mark  the  entry  as  made
              under  MSDOS  (even  though it was not); for compatibility with PKUNZIP under MSDOS
              which cannot handle certain names such as those with two dots.

              Translate the Unix end-of-line character LF into the MSDOS convention CR  LF.  This
              option  should not be used on binary files.  This option can be used on Unix if the
              zip file is intended for PKUNZIP under MSDOS. If the input files already contain CR
              LF,  this option adds an extra CR. This is to ensure that unzip -a on Unix will get
              back an exact copy of the original file, to undo the effect of zip -l.  See -ll for
              how binary files are handled.

              Append to existing logfile.  Default is to overwrite.

       -lf logfilepath
       --logfile-path logfilepath
              Open a logfile at the given path.  By default any existing file at that location is
              overwritten, but the -la option will result in an existing file  being  opened  and
              the  new  log  information appended to any existing information.  Only warnings and
              errors are written to the log unless the -li option is also given, then all  infor‐
              mation messages are also written to the log.

              Include  information  messages,  such  as file names being zipped, in the log.  The
              default is to only include the command line, any warnings and errors, and the final

              Translate the MSDOS end-of-line CR LF into Unix LF.  This option should not be used
              on binary files.  This option can be used on MSDOS if the zip file is intended  for
              unzip  under Unix.  If the file is converted and the file is later determined to be
              binary a warning is issued and the file is probably corrupted.  In this release  if
              -ll  detects  binary in the first buffer read from a file, zip now issues a warning
              and skips line end conversion on the file.  This check seems to  catch  all  binary
              files  tested,  but  the  original  check  remains and if a converted file is later
              determined to be binary that warning is still issued.  A new algorithm is now being
              used  for  binary  detection that should allow line end conversion of text files in
              UTF-8 and similar encodings.

              Display the zip license.

              Move the specified files into the zip archive; actually, this  deletes  the  target
              directories/files  after  making  the specified zip archive. If a directory becomes
              empty after removal of the files, the directory is also removed. No  deletions  are
              done  until zip has created the archive without error.  This is useful for conserv‐
              ing disk space, but is potentially dangerous so it is recommended to use it in com‐
              bination with -T to test the archive before removing all input files.

              All  input  patterns must match at least one file and all input files found must be
              readable.  Normally when an input pattern does not  match  a  file  the  "name  not
              matched" warning is issued and when an input file has been found but later is miss‐
              ing or not readable a missing or not readable warning is issued.   In  either  case
              zip  continues  creating  the  archive,  with missing or unreadable new files being
              skipped and files already in the archive remaining unchanged.  After the archive is
              created, if any files were not readable zip returns the OPEN error code (18 on most
              systems) instead of the normal success return (0 on most systems).  With  -MM  set,
              zip  exits  as  soon  as  an  input  pattern is not matched (whenever the "name not
              matched" warning would be issued) or when an input file is not readable.  In either
              case zip exits with an OPEN error and no archive is created.

              This  option is useful when a known list of files is to be zipped so any missing or
              unreadable files will result in an error.  It is less useful when used  with  wild‐
              cards,  but zip will still exit with an error if any input pattern doesn't match at
              least one file and if any matched files are unreadable.  If you want to create  the
              archive  anyway and only need to know if files were skipped, don't use -MM and just
              check the return code.  Also -lf could be useful.

       -n suffixes
       --suffixes suffixes
              Do not attempt to compress files named with the given  suffixes.   Such  files  are
              simply  stored  (0%  compression) in the output zip file, so that zip doesn't waste
              its time trying to compress them.  The suffixes are separated by either  colons  or
              semicolons.  For example:

                     zip -rn .Z:.zip:.tiff:.gif:.snd  foo foo

              will  copy  everything  from foo into foo.zip, but will store any files that end in
              .Z, .zip, .tiff, .gif, or .snd without trying to compress  them  (image  and  sound
              files  often have their own specialized compression methods).  By default, zip does
              not compress files with extensions in the list  .Z:.zip:.zoo:.arc:.lzh:.arj.   Such
              files  are  stored directly in the output archive.  The environment variable ZIPOPT
              can be used to change the default options. For example under Unix with csh:

                     setenv ZIPOPT "-n .gif:.zip"

              To attempt compression on all files, use:

                     zip -n : foo

              The maximum compression option -9 also attempts compression on all files regardless
              of extension.

              On  Acorn RISC OS systems the suffixes are actually filetypes (3 hex digit format).
              By default, zip does not compress files with  filetypes  in  the  list  DDC:D96:68E
              (i.e. Archives, CFS files and PackDir files).

              Do not perform internal wildcard processing (shell processing of wildcards is still
              done by the shell unless the arguments are escaped).  Useful if a list of paths  is
              being read and no wildcard substitution is desired.

              [Amiga,  MacOS]  Save  Amiga  or  MacOS  filenotes as zipfile comments. They can be
              restored by using the -N option of unzip. If -c is used also, you are prompted  for
              comments only for those files that do not have filenotes.

              Set  the "last modified" time of the zip archive to the latest (oldest) "last modi‐
              fied" time found among the entries in the zip archive.  This can  be  used  without
              any other operations, if desired.  For example:

              zip -o foo

              will  change the last modified time of foo.zip to the latest time of the entries in

       -O output-file
       --output-file output-file
              Process the archive changes as usual, but instead of updating the existing archive,
              output  the  new  archive  to  output-file.  Useful for updating an archive without
              changing the existing archive and the input archive must be a different  file  than
              the output archive.

              This option can be used to create updated split archives.  It can also be used with
              -U to copy entries from an existing archive to a new  archive.   See  the  EXAMPLES
              section below.

              Another  use is converting zip files from one split size to another.  For instance,
              to convert an archive with 700 MB CD splits to one with 2 GB DVD splits, can use:

                     zip -s 2g cd-split.zip --out dvd-split.zip

              which uses copy mode.  See -U below.  Also:

                     zip -s 0 split.zip --out unsplit.zip

              will convert a split archive to a single-file archive.

              Copy mode will convert stream entries (using data descriptors and which  should  be
              compatible with most unzips) to normal entries (which should be compatible with all
              unzips), except if standard encryption  was  used.   For  archives  with  encrypted
              entries, zipcloak will decrypt the entries and convert them to normal entries.

              Include  relative  file  paths as part of the names of files stored in the archive.
              This is the default.  The -j option junks the paths and just stores  the  names  of
              the files.

       -P password
       --password password
              Use  password  to encrypt zipfile entries (if any).  THIS IS INSECURE!  Many multi-
              user operating systems provide ways for any user to see the current command line of
              any other user; even on stand-alone systems there is always the threat of over-the-
              shoulder peeking.  Storing the plaintext password as part of a command line  in  an
              automated  script  is even worse.  Whenever possible, use the non-echoing, interac‐
              tive prompt to enter passwords.  (And where security is truly important, use strong
              encryption  such  as  Pretty  Good  Privacy instead of the relatively weak standard
              encryption provided by zipfile utilities.)

              Quiet mode; eliminate informational messages and  comment  prompts.   (Useful,  for
              example, in shell scripts and background tasks).

       --Q-flag n
              [QDOS] store information about the file in the file header with n defined as
              bit  0: Don't add headers for any file
              bit  1: Add headers for all files
              bit  2: Don't wait for interactive key press on exit

              Travel the directory structure recursively; for example:

                     zip -r foo.zip foo

              or more concisely

                     zip -r foo foo

              In this case, all the files and directories in foo are saved in a zip archive named
              foo.zip, including files with names starting with ".", since the recursion does not
              use  the  shell's  file-name substitution mechanism.  If you wish to include only a
              specific subset of the files in directory foo and its subdirectories,  use  the  -i
              option  to specify the pattern of files to be included.  You should not use -r with
              the name ".*", since that matches ".."  which will attempt to  zip  up  the  parent
              directory (probably not what was intended).

              Multiple source directories are allowed as in

                     zip -r foo foo1 foo2

              which first zips up foo1 and then foo2, going down each directory.

              Note  that while wildcards to -r are typically resolved while recursing down direc‐
              tories in the file system, any -R, -x, and -i wildcards are applied to internal ar‐
              chive pathnames once the directories are scanned.  To have wildcards apply to files
              in subdirectories when recursing on Unix and similar systems where the  shell  does
              wildcard  substitution, either escape all wildcards or put all arguments with wild‐
              cards in quotes.  This lets zip see the wildcards and match files in subdirectories
              using them as it recurses.

              Travel  the  directory structure recursively starting at the current directory; for

                     zip -R foo "*.c"

              In this case, all the files matching *.c in the tree starting at the current direc‐
              tory are stored into a zip archive named foo.zip.  Note that *.c will match file.c,
              a/file.c and a/b/.c.  More than one pattern can be listed  as  separate  arguments.
              Note for PKZIP users: the equivalent command is

                     pkzip -rP foo *.c

              Patterns  are relative file paths as they appear in the archive, or will after zip‐
              ping, and can have optional wildcards in them.   For  example,  given  the  current
              directory is foo and under it are directories foo1 and foo2 and in foo1 is the file

                     zip -R foo/*

              will zip up foo, foo/foo1, foo/foo1/bar.c, and foo/foo2.

                     zip -R */bar.c

              will zip up foo/foo1/bar.c.  See the note for -r on escaping wildcards.

              [WIN32]  Before zip 3.0, regular expression list matching was enabled by default on
              Windows  platforms.  Because of confusion resulting from the need to escape "[" and
              "]" in names, it is now off by default for Windows so "[" and "]" are  just  normal
              characters in names.  This option enables [] matching again.

       -s splitsize
       --split-size splitsize
              Enable  creating a split archive and set the split size.  A split archive is an ar‐
              chive that could be split over many files.  As the archive is created, if the  size
              of  the archive reaches the specified split size, that split is closed and the next
              split opened.  In general all splits but the last will be the split  size  and  the
              last  will  be  whatever  is left.  If the entire archive is smaller than the split
              size a single-file archive is created.

              Split archives are stored in numbered files.  For example, if the output archive is
              named  archive  and three splits are required, the resulting archive will be in the
              three files archive.z01, archive.z02, and archive.zip.  Do not change the numbering
              of  these  files or the archive will not be readable as these are used to determine
              the order the splits are read.

              Split size is a number optionally followed by a multiplier.  Currently  the  number
              must  be  an  integer.   The  multiplier  can  currently be one of k (kilobytes), m
              (megabytes), g (gigabytes), or t (terabytes).  As 64k is the  minimum  split  size,
              numbers  without  multipliers default to megabytes.  For example, to create a split
              archive called foo with the contents of the bar directory with  splits  of  670  MB
              that might be useful for burning on CDs, the command:

                     zip -s 670m -r foo bar

              could be used.

              Currently  the  old  splits of a split archive are not excluded from a new archive,
              but they can be specifically excluded.  If possible, keep the input and output  ar‐
              chives out of the path being zipped when creating split archives.

              Using -s without -sp as above creates all the splits where foo is being written, in
              this case the current directory.  This split mode updates the splits as the archive
              is  being  created,  requiring all splits to remain writable, but creates split ar‐
              chives that are readable by any unzip that supports split archives.  See -sp  below
              for  enabling split pause mode which allows splits to be written directly to remov‐
              able media.

              The option -sv can be used to enable verbose splitting and provide details  of  how
              the  splitting is being done.  The -sb option can be used to ring the bell when zip
              pauses for the next split destination.

              Split archives cannot be updated, but see the -O (--out) option for how a split ar‐
              chive can be updated as it is copied to a new archive.  A split archive can also be
              converted into a single-file archive using a split size of 0  or  negating  the  -s

                     zip -s 0 split.zip --out single.zip

              Also see -U (--copy) for more on using copy mode.

              If  splitting  and  using  split pause mode, ring the bell when zip pauses for each
              split destination.

              Show the command line starting zip as processed and exit.  The new  command  parser
              permutes  the  arguments,  putting  all options and any values associated with them
              before any non-option arguments.  This allows an option to appear anywhere  in  the
              command line as long as any values that go with the option go with it.  This option
              displays the command line as zip sees it, including any arguments from the environ‐
              ment such as from the ZIPOPT variable.  Where allowed, options later in the command
              line can override options earlier in the command line.

              Show the files that would be operated on, then exit.  For instance, if  creating  a
              new  archive,  this  will  list  the  files  that would be added.  If the option is
              negated, -sf-, output only to an open log file.  Screen display is not  recommended
              for large lists.

              Show  all available options supported by zip as compiled on the current system.  As
              this command reads the option table, it should  include  all  options.   Each  line
              includes the short option (if defined), the long option (if defined), the format of
              any value that goes with the option, if the option can  be  negated,  and  a  small
              description.   The  value  format  can be no value, required value, optional value,
              single character value, number value, or a list of  values.   The  output  of  this
              option is not intended to show how to use any option but only show what options are

              If splitting is enabled with -s, enable split pause mode.  This creates  split  ar‐
              chives  as  -s does, but stream writing is used so each split can be closed as soon
              as it is written and zip will pause between each split to allow changing split des‐
              tination or media.

              Though  this  split mode allows writing splits directly to removable media, it uses
              stream archive format that may not be readable by some unzips.  Before  relying  on
              splits created with -sp, test a split archive with the unzip you will be using.

              To  convert a stream split archive (created with -sp) to a standard archive see the
              --out option.

              As -sf, but also show Unicode version of the path if exists.

              As -sf, but only show Unicode version of the path if  exists,  otherwise  show  the
              standard version of the path.

              Enable various verbose messages while splitting, showing how the splitting is being

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32 and ATARI] Include system and hidden files.
              [MacOS] Includes finder invisible files, which are ignored otherwise.

       -t mmddyyyy
       --from-date mmddyyyy
              Do not operate on files modified prior to the specified date, where mm is the month
              (00-12),  dd  is  the day of the month (01-31), and yyyy is the year.  The ISO 8601
              date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rt 12071991 infamy foo

                     zip -rt 1991-12-07 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified on  or
              after 7 December 1991, to the zip archive infamy.zip.

       -tt mmddyyyy
       --before-date mmddyyyy
              Do  not  operate  on files modified after or at the specified date, where mm is the
              month (00-12), dd is the day of the month (01-31),  and  yyyy  is  the  year.   The
              ISO 8601 date format yyyy-mm-dd is also accepted.  For example:

                     zip -rtt 11301995 infamy foo

                     zip -rtt 1995-11-30 infamy foo

              will add all the files in foo and its subdirectories that were last modified before
              30 November 1995, to the zip archive infamy.zip.

              Test the integrity of the new zip file. If the check fails, the  old  zip  file  is
              unchanged and (with the -m option) no input files are removed.

       -TT cmd
       --unzip-command cmd
              Use  command  cmd  instead of 'unzip -tqq' to test an archive when the -T option is
              used.  On Unix, to use a copy of unzip in the  current  directory  instead  of  the
              standard system unzip, could use:

               zip archive file1 file2 -T -TT "./unzip -tqq"

              In  cmd, {} is replaced by the name of the temporary archive, otherwise the name of
              the archive is appended to the end of the command.  The return code is checked  for
              success (0 on Unix).

              Replace  (update) an existing entry in the zip archive only if it has been modified
              more recently than the version already in the zip archive.  For example:

                     zip -u stuff *

              will add any new files in the current directory, and update any  files  which  have
              been  modified since the zip archive stuff.zip was last created/modified (note that
              zip will not try to pack stuff.zip into itself when you do this).

              Note that the -u option with no input file arguments acts  like  the  -f  (freshen)

              Copy  entries  from one archive to another.  Requires the --out option to specify a
              different output file than the input archive.  Copy  mode  is  the  reverse  of  -d
              delete.   When  delete  is  being used with --out, the selected entries are deleted
              from the archive and all other entries are copied to the new  archive,  while  copy
              mode selects the files to include in the new archive.  Unlike -u update, input pat‐
              terns on the command line are matched against archive entries only and not the file
              system files.  For instance,

                     zip inarchive "*.c" --copy --out outarchive

              copies  entries with names ending in .c from inarchive to outarchive.  The wildcard
              must be escaped on some systems to prevent the shell  from  substituting  names  of
              files  from  the  file system which may have no relevance to the entries in the ar‐

              If no input files appear on the command line  and  --out  is  used,  copy  mode  is

                     zip inarchive --out outarchive

              This  is  useful  for  changing split size for instance.  Encrypting and decrypting
              entries is not yet supported using copy mode.  Use zipcloak for that.

       -UN v
       --unicode v
              Determine what zip should do with Unicode file names.  zip 3.0, in addition to  the
              standard  file  path,  now  includes the UTF-8 translation of the path if the entry
              path is not entirely 7-bit ASCII.  When an entry is missing the Unicode  path,  zip
              reverts  back  to the standard file path.  The problem with using the standard path
              is this path is in the local character set of the zip that created the entry, which
              may  contain  characters  that are not valid in the character set being used by the
              unzip.  When zip is reading an archive, if an entry also has a  Unicode  path,  zip
              now defaults to using the Unicode path to recreate the standard path using the cur‐
              rent local character set.

              This option can be used to determine what zip should do with this path if there  is
              a  mismatch  between  the stored standard path and the stored UTF-8 path (which can
              happen if the standard path was updated).  In all cases, if there is a mismatch  it
              is  assumed that the standard path is more current and zip uses that.  Values for v

                     q - quit if paths do not match

                     w - warn, continue with standard path

                     i - ignore, continue with standard path

                     n - no Unicode, do not use Unicode paths

              The default is to warn and continue.

              Characters that are not valid in the current character set are  escaped  as  #Uxxxx
              and  #Lxxxxxx, where x is an ASCII character for a hex digit.  The first is used if
              a 16-bit character number is sufficient to represent the Unicode character and  the
              second if the character needs more than 16 bits to represent it's Unicode character
              code.  Setting -UN to

                     e - escape

              as in

                     zip archive -sU -UN=e

              forces zip to escape all characters that are not printable 7-bit ASCII.

              Normally zip stores UTF-8 directly in the standard  path  field  on  systems  where
              UTF-8  is  the  current  character set and stores the UTF-8 in the new extra fields
              otherwise.  The option

                     u - UTF-8

              as in

                     zip archive dir -r -UN=UTF8

              forces zip to store UTF-8 as native  in  the  archive.   Note  that  storing  UTF-8
              directly is the default on Unix systems that support it.  This option could be use‐
              ful on Windows systems where the escaped path is too large to be a valid  path  and
              the UTF-8 version of the path is smaller, but native UTF-8 is not backward compati‐
              ble on Windows systems.

              Verbose mode or print diagnostic version info.

              Normally, when applied to real operations, this option enables  the  display  of  a
              progress  indicator during compression (see -dd for more on dots) and requests ver‐
              bose diagnostic info about zipfile structure oddities.

              However, when -v is the only command line argument a diagnostic screen  is  printed
              instead.   This  should  now  work even if stdout is redirected to a file, allowing
              easy saving of the information for sending with bug reports to Info-ZIP.  The  ver‐
              sion screen provides the help screen header with program name, version, and release
              date, some pointers to the Info-ZIP home and distribution sites, and shows informa‐
              tion  about the target environment (compiler type and version, OS version, compila‐
              tion date and the enabled optional features used to create the zip executable).

              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes.  (Files are  truncated at EOF.)   When a -V archive
              is  unpacked  on  a  non-VMS system,  some file types (notably Stream_LF text files
              and  pure binary files  like fixed-512) should be extracted intact.  Indexed  files
              and  file  types  with embedded record sizes (notably variable-length record types)
              will probably be seen as corrupt elsewhere.

              [VMS] Save VMS file attributes, and  all allocated blocks  in  a  file,   including
              any   data  beyond  EOF.   Useful  for moving ill-formed files  among  VMS systems.
              When a -VV archive is unpacked on a non-VMS system, almost all  files  will  appear

              [VMS]  Append  the version number of the files to the name, including multiple ver‐
              sions of files.  Default is to use only the most  recent  version  of  a  specified

              [VMS]  Append  the version number of the files to the name, including multiple ver‐
              sions of files, using the .nnn format.  Default is to use only the most recent ver‐
              sion of a specified file.

              Wildcards  match  only at a directory level.  Normally zip handles paths as strings
              and given the paths



              an input pattern such as


              normally would match both paths, the * matching dir/file1.c and file2.c.  Note that
              in  the  first case a directory boundary (/) was crossed in the match.  With -ws no
              directory bounds will be included in the match, making wildcards local  to  a  spe‐
              cific  directory  level.   So,  with  -ws  enabled,  only  the second path would be

              When using -ws, use ** to match across directory boundaries as * does normally.

       -x files
       --exclude files
              Explicitly exclude the specified files, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o

              which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while  excluding  all  the  files
              that  end in .o.  The backslash avoids the shell filename substitution, so that the
              name matching is performed by zip at all directory levels.

              Also possible:

                     zip -r foo foo -x AT exclude.lst

              which will include the contents of foo in foo.zip while  excluding  all  the  files
              that match the patterns in the file exclude.lst.

              The long option forms of the above are

                     zip -r foo foo --exclude \*.o


                     zip -r foo foo --exclude @exclude.lst

              Multiple patterns can be specified, as in:

                     zip -r foo foo -x \*.o \*.c

              If  there  is  no  space  between -x and the pattern, just one value is assumed (no

                     zip -r foo foo -x\*.o

              See -i for more on include and exclude.

              Do not save extra file attributes (Extended Attributes on OS/2,  uid/gid  and  file
              times on Unix).  The zip format uses extra fields to include additional information
              for each entry.  Some extra fields are specific to particular systems while  others
              are  applicable  to  all systems.  Normally when zip reads entries from an existing
              archive, it reads the extra fields it knows, strips the rest, and  adds  the  extra
              fields  applicable  to  that  system.   With -X, zip strips all old fields and only
              includes the Unicode and Zip64 extra fields (currently these two extra fields  can‐
              not be disabled).

              Negating  this  option, -X-, includes all the default extra fields, but also copies
              over any unrecognized extra fields.

              For UNIX and VMS (V8.3 and later), store symbolic links as such in the zip archive,
              instead  of  compressing  and  storing  the file referred to by the link.  This can
              avoid multiple copies of files being included in the archive as  zip  recurses  the
              directory trees and accesses files directly and by links.

              Prompt  for  a multi-line comment for the entire zip archive.  The comment is ended
              by a line containing just a period, or an end of file condition (^D on Unix, ^Z  on
              MSDOS, OS/2, and VMS).  The comment can be taken from a file:

                     zip -z foo < foowhat

       -Z cm
       --compression-method cm
              Set  the  default  compression method.  Currently the main methods supported by zip
              are store and deflate.  Compression method can be set to:

              store - Setting the compression method to store forces zip to store entries with no
              compression.   This is generally faster than compressing entries, but results in no
              space savings.  This is the same as using -0 (compression level zero).

              deflate - This is the default method for zip.  If zip determines  that  storing  is
              better than deflation, the entry will be stored instead.

              bzip2  -  If  bzip2  support  is  compiled in, this compression method also becomes
              available.  Only some modern unzips currently support the bzip2 compression method,
              so  test  the  unzip you will be using before relying on archives using this method
              (compression method 12).

              For example, to add bar.c to archive foo using bzip2 compression:

                     zip -Z bzip2 foo bar.c

              The compression method can be abbreviated:

                     zip -Zb foo bar.c

       (-0, -1, -2, -3, -4, -5, -6, -7, -8, -9)
              Regulate the speed of compression using the specified digit #, where  -0  indicates
              no  compression (store all files), -1 indicates the fastest compression speed (less
              compression) and -9 indicates the slowest compression speed  (optimal  compression,
              ignores the suffix list). The default compression level is -6.

              Though  still  being worked, the intention is this setting will control compression
              speed for all compression methods.  Currently only deflation is controlled.

              [WIN32] Use privileges (if granted) to obtain all aspects of WinNT security.

              Take the list of input files from standard input. Only one filename per line.

              [MSDOS, OS/2, WIN32] Include the volume label for the drive holding the first  file
              to  be compressed.  If you want to include only the volume label or to force a spe‐
              cific drive, use the drive name as first file name, as in:

                     zip -$ foo a: c:bar

       The simplest example:

              zip stuff *

       creates the archive stuff.zip (assuming it does not exist) and puts all the files  in  the
       current  directory  in  it,  in  compressed  form (the .zip suffix is added automatically,
       unless the archive name contains a dot already; this allows the explicit specification  of
       other suffixes).

       Because  of  the way the shell on Unix does filename substitution, files starting with "."
       are not included; to include these as well:

              zip stuff .* *

       Even this will not include any subdirectories from the current directory.

       To zip up an entire directory, the command:

              zip -r foo foo

       creates the archive foo.zip, containing all the files and directories in the directory foo
       that is contained within the current directory.

       You  may  want to make a zip archive that contains the files in foo, without recording the
       directory name, foo.  You can use the -j option to leave off the paths, as in:

              zip -j foo foo/*

       If you are short on disk space, you might not have enough room to hold both  the  original
       directory  and the corresponding compressed zip archive.  In this case, you can create the
       archive in steps using the -m option.  If foo contains the subdirectories tom,  dick,  and
       harry, you can:

              zip -rm foo foo/tom
              zip -rm foo foo/dick
              zip -rm foo foo/harry

       where the first command creates foo.zip, and the next two add to it.  At the completion of
       each zip command, the last created archive is deleted, making room for the next  zip  com‐
       mand to function.

       Use  -s  to  set the split size and create a split archive.  The size is given as a number
       followed optionally by one of k (kB), m (MB), g (GB), or t (TB).  The command

              zip -s 2g -r split.zip foo

       creates a split archive of the directory foo with splits no bigger than 2 GB each.  If foo
       contained  5 GB of contents and the contents were stored in the split archive without com‐
       pression (to make this example simple), this would create three splits, split.z01 at 2 GB,
       split.z02 at 2 GB, and split.zip at a little over 1 GB.

       The  -sp option can be used to pause zip between splits to allow changing removable media,
       for example, but read the descriptions and warnings for both -s and -sp below.

       Though zip does not update split archives, zip provides the new option -O  (--output-file)
       to allow split archives to be updated and saved in a new archive.  For example,

              zip inarchive.zip foo.c bar.c --out outarchive.zip

       reads archive inarchive.zip, even if split, adds the files foo.c and bar.c, and writes the
       resulting archive to  outarchive.zip.   If  inarchive.zip  is  split  then  outarchive.zip
       defaults  to  the  same split size.  Be aware that outarchive.zip and any split files that
       are created with it are always overwritten without warning.  This may be  changed  in  the

       This  section  applies only to Unix.  Watch this space for details on MSDOS and VMS opera‐
       tion.  However, the special wildcard characters * and [] below apply  to  at  least  MSDOS

       The Unix shells (sh, csh, bash, and others) normally do filename substitution (also called
       "globbing") on command arguments.  Generally the special characters are:

       ?      match any single character

       *      match any number of characters (including none)

       []     match any character in the range indicated within  the  brackets  (example:  [a-f],
              [0-9]).   This form of wildcard matching allows a user to specify a list of charac‐
              ters between square brackets and if any of  the  characters  match  the  expression
              matches.  For example:

                     zip archive "*.[hc]"

              would archive all files in the current directory that end in .h or .c.

              Ranges of characters are supported:

                     zip archive "[a-f]*"

              would add to the archive all files starting with "a" through "f".

              Negation  is  also  supported, where any character in that position not in the list
              matches.  Negation is supported by adding ! or ^ to the beginning of the list:

                     zip archive "*.[!o]"

              matches files that don't end in ".o".

              On WIN32, [] matching needs to be turned on with the -RE option to avoid the confu‐
              sion that names with [ or ] have caused.

       When  these characters are encountered (without being escaped with a backslash or quotes),
       the shell will look for files relative to the current path that  match  the  pattern,  and
       replace the argument with a list of the names that matched.

       The  zip program can do the same matching on names that are in the zip archive being modi‐
       fied or, in the case of the -x (exclude) or -i (include) options, on the list of files  to
       be operated on, by using backslashes or quotes to tell the shell not to do the name expan‐
       sion.  In general, when zip encounters a name in the list of files to do, it  first  looks
       for  the name in the file system.  If it finds it, it then adds it to the list of files to
       do.  If it does not find it, it looks for the name in the zip archive being  modified  (if
       it  exists),  using the pattern matching characters described above, if present.  For each
       match, it will add that name to the list of  files  to  be  processed,  unless  this  name
       matches one given with the -x option, or does not match any name given with the -i option.

       The  pattern matching includes the path, and so patterns like \*.o match names that end in
       ".o", no matter what the path prefix is.  Note that the backslash must precede every  spe‐
       cial character (i.e. ?*[]), or the entire argument must be enclosed in double quotes ("").

       In  general, use backslashes or double quotes for paths that have wildcards to make zip do
       the pattern matching for file paths, and always for paths and strings that have spaces  or
       wildcards for -i, -x, -R, -d, and -U and anywhere zip needs to process the wildcards.

       The following environment variables are read and used by zip as described.

              contains  default options that will be used when running zip.  The contents of this
              environment variable will get added to the command line just after the zip command.

              [Not on RISC OS and VMS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] see ZIPOPT

              [RISC OS] contains extensions separated by a : that  will  cause  native  filenames
              with  one of the specified extensions to be added to the zip file with basename and
              extension swapped.

              [VMS] see ZIPOPT

       compress(1), shar(1), tar(1), unzip(1), gzip(1)

       The exit status (or error level) approximates the exit codes defined by PKWARE  and  takes
       on the following values, except under VMS:

              0      normal; no errors or warnings detected.

              2      unexpected end of zip file.

              3      a  generic  error  in  the zipfile format was detected.  Processing may have
                     completed  successfully  anyway;  some  broken  zipfiles  created  by  other
                     archivers have simple work-arounds.

              4      zip  was  unable  to  allocate memory for one or more buffers during program

              5      a severe error in the zipfile  format  was  detected.   Processing  probably
                     failed immediately.

              6      entry  too  large to be processed (such as input files larger than 2 GB when
                     not using Zip64 or trying to read an existing archive that is too large)  or
                     entry too large to be split with zipsplit

              7      invalid comment format

              8      zip -T failed or out of memory

              9      the user aborted zip prematurely with control-C (or similar)

              10     zip encountered an error while using a temp file

              11     read or seek error

              12     zip has nothing to do

              13     missing or empty zip file

              14     error writing to a file

              15     zip was unable to create a file to write to

              16     bad command line parameters

              18     zip could not open a specified file to read

              19     zip was compiled with options not supported on this system

       VMS  interprets  standard  Unix (or PC) return values as other, scarier-looking things, so
       zip instead maps them into VMS-style status codes.  In general, zip sets  VMS  Facility  =
       1955  (0x07A3),  Code  =  2*  Unix_status,  and  an  appropriate Severity (as specified in
       ziperr.h).   More  details  are  included  in   the   VMS-specific   documentation.    See
       [.vms]NOTES.TXT and [.vms]vms_msg_gen.c.

       zip 3.0 is not compatible with PKUNZIP 1.10. Use zip 1.1 to produce zip files which can be
       extracted by PKUNZIP 1.10.

       zip files produced by zip 3.0 must not be updated by zip 1.1 or PKZIP 1.10, if  they  con‐
       tain  encrypted  members  or  if  they  have  been produced in a pipe or on a non-seekable
       device. The old versions of zip or PKZIP would create an archive with an incorrect format.
       The  old  versions  can  list  the  contents  of the zip file but cannot extract it anyway
       (because of the new compression algorithm).  If you do not use encryption and use  regular
       disk files, you do not have to care about this problem.

       Under  VMS,  not  all of the odd file formats are treated properly.  Only stream-LF format
       zip files are expected to work with zip.  Others can be converted using Rahul Dhesi's BILF
       program.   This version of zip handles some of the conversion internally.  When using Ker‐
       mit to transfer zip files from VMS to MSDOS, type "set file  type  block"  on  VMS.   When
       transferring  from  MSDOS  to VMS, type "set file type fixed" on VMS.  In both cases, type
       "set file type binary" on MSDOS.

       Under some older VMS versions, zip may hang for file specifications that use DECnet syntax

       On  OS/2,  zip  cannot  match some names, such as those including an exclamation mark or a
       hash sign.  This is a bug in OS/2 itself: the 32-bit  DosFindFirst/Next  don't  find  such
       names.  Other programs such as GNU tar are also affected by this bug.

       Under  OS/2, the amount of Extended Attributes displayed by DIR is (for compatibility) the
       amount returned by the 16-bit version of DosQueryPathInfo(). Otherwise OS/2  1.3  and  2.0
       would  report  different  EA  sizes  when  DIRing  a  file.  However, the structure layout
       returned by the 32-bit DosQueryPathInfo() is a bit different, it uses extra padding  bytes
       and  link pointers (it's a linked list) to have all fields on 4-byte boundaries for porta‐
       bility to future RISC OS/2 versions. Therefore the value reported by zip (which uses  this
       32-bit-mode  size)  differs  from  that reported by DIR.  zip stores the 32-bit format for
       portability, even the 16-bit MS-C-compiled version running on OS/2 1.3, so even  this  one
       shows the 32-bit-mode size.

       Copyright (C) 1997-2008 Info-ZIP.

       Currently distributed under the Info-ZIP license.

       Copyright  (C) 1990-1997 Mark Adler, Richard B. Wales, Jean-loup Gailly, Onno van der Lin‐
       den, Kai Uwe Rommel, Igor Mandrichenko, John Bush and Paul Kienitz.

       Original copyright:

       Permission is granted to any individual or institution to use, copy, or redistribute  this
       software  so  long  as  all  of  the  original files are included, that it is not sold for
       profit, and that this copyright notice is retained.


       Please send bug reports and comments using the web page  at:  www.info-zip.org.   For  bug
       reports,  please include the version of zip (see zip -h), the make options used to compile
       it (see zip -v), the machine and operating system in use, and as much additional  informa‐
       tion as possible.

       Thanks  to  R.  P. Byrne for his Shrink.Pas program, which inspired this project, and from
       which the shrink algorithm was stolen; to Phil Katz for placing in the public  domain  the
       zip  file format, compression format, and .ZIP filename extension, and for accepting minor
       changes to the file format; to Steve Burg for clarifications on  the  deflate  format;  to
       Haruhiko  Okumura  and Leonid Broukhis for providing some useful ideas for the compression
       algorithm; to Keith Petersen, Rich Wales, Hunter Goatley and Mark Adler  for  providing  a
       mailing  list  and  ftp  site  for the Info-ZIP group to use; and most importantly, to the
       Info-ZIP group itself (listed in the file infozip.who) without whose tireless testing  and
       bug-fixing  efforts  a portable zip would not have been possible.  Finally we should thank
       (blame) the first Info-ZIP moderator, David Kirschbaum, for getting us into this  mess  in
       the  first  place.  The manual page was rewritten for Unix by R. P. C. Rodgers and updated
       by E. Gordon for zip 3.0.

Info-ZIP                               16 June 2008 (v3.0)                                 ZIP(1)

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