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INSSERV(8)                           System Manager's Manual                           INSSERV(8)

       insserv - boot sequence organizer using LSB init.d script dependency information

       insserv [-v] [-c <config>] [-p <path>] [-d] [-f] [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv                   [-v]                  [-c <config>]                  [-p <path>]

       insserv [-v] [-c <config>] [-p <path>] -r [-d] [-f] [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...

       insserv -h

       insserv is a low level tool used by update-rc.d which enables  an  installed  system  init
       script (`boot script') by reading the comment header of the script, e.g.:

         ### BEGIN INIT INFO
         # Provides:          boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Start:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Required-Stop:     boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Start:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Should-Stop:       boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Start-Before:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # X-Stop-After:      boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]
         # Default-Start:     run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # Default-Stop:      run_level_1 [ run_level_2 ...]
         # X-Interactive:     true
         # Short-Description: single_line_description
         # Description:       multiline_description
         ### END INIT INFO

       and  calculating  the  dependencies  between all scripts. It is not recommended to execute
       insserv directly unless you know exactly what you're doing, doing so may render your  boot
       system  inoperable.   update-rc.d  is the recommended interface for managing init scripts.
       Please be aware that the line

         # Required-Stop:  boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       declares facilities which must be available during shutdown of the service declared in the
       Provides tag.  Same holds true for

         # Should-Stop:    boot_facility_1 [ boot_facility_2 ...]

       which  declares  facilities  which  should  be  available  during  shutdown of the service
       declared in the Provides tag. In both cases the script system should avoid  stopping  ser‐
       vices  which  are declared by these two Stop tags until the script including these tags is

       The optional X-Interactive keyword implies that the script using this  keyword  should  be
       started  alone in a concurrent boot configuration because it interact with the user at the
       console.  Only the value `true' is recognised.  All other are ignored.

       The optional X-Start-Before keyword implies that the script using this keyword  should  be
       started  before  the  specified  service names.  Whereas the optional X-Stop-After keyword
       implies that the script using this keyword should be stopped after the  specified  service
       names.  Both  implies that those services now depend on the specifying script.  With known
       dependencies and runlevel(s) insserv sets and reorders the corresponding symbolic links of
       the concerned runlevels directories.

       insserv  scans  for System Facilities in the configuration file /etc/insserv.conf and each
       file in the directory /etc/insserv.conf.d/.  Each line which begins with $ and a following
       name defines a system facility accordingly to the Linux Standard Base Specification (LSB),
       All names followed by such a system facility will declare the required dependencies of the
       facility.  Here is an example for /etc/insserv.conf:

         # All local filesystems are mounted
         # (done during boot phase)
         $local_fs       boot

         # Low level networking
         $network        network route

         # Named is operational
         $named          named

         # All remote filesystems are mounted
         # (in some cases /usr may be remote).
         $remote_fs      $local_fs nfs

         # System logger is operational
         $syslog         syslog

         # All network daemons are running (This was removed in LSB 1.2)
         $netdaemons     portmap inetd

         # Services which need to be interactive
         <interactive>   boot.crypto

       Names starting with a `+' sign are marked as optional.  If the service with the name after
       the plus sign is available it will be used, if  not  available  it  is  ignored  silently.
       Words  beginning  with  <  and ending with > are keywords.  Currently <interactive> is the
       only know keyword for marking a service as  an  interactive  one,  e.g.  a  service  which
       requires  a  passphrase  or  password  input  during boot or runlevel change.  The special
       facility $null is used to enforce an empty dependency in case of Should-Stop and Required-

       In  addition to the defined System Facilities in the configuration file /etc/insserv.conf,
       insserv also knows the special facility $all.  This  facility  indicates  that  a  service
       should  be  inserted  at  the end of all services at starting and at the very beginning at
       stopping.  Clearly all services using this facility will be grouped into one  starting  or
       stopping order.

       Currently there exists nine options for insserv.

       -v, --verbose
              Write out what is currently going on.

       -c <config>, --config <config>
              Specify path to the insserv.conf file and the insserv.conf.d directory.  Useful for

       -o <path>, --override <path>
              LSB comment headers found in this path will override existing LSB  comment  headers
              of scripts in the init.d directory (default path is /etc/insserv/overrides/).

       -p <path>, --path <path>
              Specify path to init.d directory.  Useful for testing.

       -n, --dryrun
              Do not update symlinks.

       -r, --remove
              Remove the listed scripts from all runlevels.

       -d, --default
              Use  default  runlevels as defined in the scripts.  This may restore an edited run‐
              level link scheme.

       -f, --force
              Ignore if a required service is missed. Beside this if start and or stop levels are
              specified on the command line the default levels of the script will be ignored.

       -u <path>, --upstart-job <path>
              Path  to  replace  existing  upstart job path.  (default path is /lib/init/upstart-

       -s, --showall
              Output runlevel and sequence information. Do not update symlinks.

       -h, --help
              Print out short usage message.

       But you may use the argument syntax described in the following section.

              Relative or absolute path to the init scripts base  directory.   This  defaults  to
              /etc/init.d/  in  compliance with the LSB specification.  In this case insserv does
              not add or remove a script to the runlevels declared in the script headers, but may
              re-order  the  runlevels  if the order of the currently enabled scripts has changed
              (see option -d).  Note that if a relative path is used insserv  has  to  be  called
              from the root directory.

       [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List  of  scripts  which  have  to  be added to the runlevels. If a path is used it
              should point to the absolute or relative location of  the  boot  scripts.   insserv
              checks for the existence of these scripts.  For the runlevels the information found
              in the script is used.

              List of scripts which have to be added to the specified  runlevels  to  be  started
              with.  You may use this extension to override the default values for start and stop
              runlevels of the script.   Note  that  lvl1, lvl2, ...   are  the  known  runlevels
              explained above.  The extension ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...> is also possible.

       -r [[/]path/to/init.d/]script ...
              List  of  scripts  which should be removed from the runlevels. If a path is used it
              should point to the absolute or relative location of  the  boot  scripts.   insserv
              checks for the existence of these scripts.

       Beside  using the extensions ,start=<lvl1,lvl2,...> and ,stop=<lvl1,lvl2,...> it is possi‐
       ble to use override files replace a LSB comment header or simple  provide  a  missing  LSB
       comment  header.  This can be done by placing a file with the new LSB comment header using
       the same name as the boot or init script in the  directory  /etc/insserv/overrides/.   For
       third  party  boot  scripts  without LSB header it is possible to add a file with the same
       name in the directory /usr/share/insserv/overrides/ to make them completely LSB compliant.

       To allow upstart jobs to work as init.d scripts, insserv will  recognize  a  symlink  from
       path/to/init.d/script to /lib/init/upstart-job as upstart jobs, and instead of reading the
       header from the file will run the script with the argument lsb-header to  get  the  script

       The exit codes have the following conditions:

              0    Service was successfully installed or removed

              1    Service was not installed or removed

       Please be aware that the following patterns of boot script file names will be not accepted
       by insserv:


       with the wildcard character *.  Beside this all boot script file names beginning with  one
       of the following characters


       will be ignored.

       Boot  scripts  sometimes lack a LSB comment header. Contact a package maintainer or devel‐
       oper of the software which provides the script to have a LSB comment header added to it.

              configuration file for insserv which defines the LSB System Facilities.

              directory for further configuration files for declaring LSB System Facilities.

              path to replace existing LSB comment headers with the comment headers found in this

              path to the init script base directory as required by the Linux Standard Base Spec‐
              ification (LSB).

              The make(1) like dependency files produced by insserv for  booting,  starting,  and
              stopping with the help of startpar(8).

       init(8), startpar(8), update-rc.d(8).

       2000-2009 Werner Fink,
       2009 SuSE Linux Products GmbH Nuernberg, Germany.
       2000-2003 SuSE GmbH Nuernberg, Germany,
       2007-2009 SuSE Linux Products GmbH Nuernberg, Germany.

       Werner Fink <feedback AT suse.de>

       Petter Reinholdtsen
       Kel Modderman

3rd Berkeley Distribution                  Jul 29, 2008                                INSSERV(8)

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