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dpkg-buildpackage(1)                      dpkg utilities                     dpkg-buildpackage(1)

       dpkg-buildpackage - build binary or source packages from sources

       dpkg-buildpackage [option...]

       dpkg-buildpackage is a program that automates the process of building a Debian package. It
       consists of the following steps:

       1. It prepares the build environment by setting various environment variables  (see  ENVI‐
          RONMENT), runs the init hook, and calls dpkg-source --before-build (unless -T or --tar‐
          get has been used).

       2. It checks that the build-dependencies and build-conflicts are satisfied (unless  -d  is

       3. If  a  specific  target has been selected with the -T or --target option, it calls that
          target and stops  here.  Otherwise  it  runs  the  preclean  hook  and  calls  fakeroot
          debian/rules clean to clean the build-tree (unless -nc is specified).

       4. It runs the source hook and calls dpkg-source -b to generate the source package (unless
          a binary-only build has been requested with -b, -B or -A).

       5. It runs the build hook and calls debian/rules build-target, then runs the  binary  hook
          followed  by  fakeroot  debian/rules binary-target (unless a source-only build has been
          requested with -S). Note that build-target  and  binary-target  are  either  build  and
          binary  (default  case, or if -b is specified), or build-arch and binary-arch (if -B or
          -G are specified), or build-indep and binary-indep (if -A or -g are specified).

       6. It runs the changes hook and calls dpkg-genchanges to generate a .changes  file.   Many
          dpkg-buildpackage options are forwarded to dpkg-genchanges.

       7. It  runs the postclean hook and if -tc is specified, it will call fakeroot debian/rules
          clean again.

       8. It calls dpkg-source --after-build.

       9. It runs the check hook and calls a package checker for the .changes file (if a  command
          is specified in DEB_CHECK_COMMAND or with --check-command).

          It  runs  the sign hook and calls gpg2 or gpg to sign the .dsc file (if any, unless -us
          is specified or on UNRELEASED builds), and the .changes file (unless -uc  is  specified
          or on UNRELEASED builds).

          It runs the done hook.

       -g     Specifies  a build limited to source and architecture independent packages.  Passed
              to dpkg-genchanges.

       -G     Specifies a build limited to source and architecture specific packages.  Passed  to

       -b     Specifies  a binary-only build, no source files are to be built and/or distributed.
              Passed to dpkg-genchanges.

       -B     Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture dependent packages.   Passed
              to dpkg-genchanges.

       -A     Specifies a binary-only build, limited to architecture independent packages. Passed
              to dpkg-genchanges.

       -S     Specifies a source-only build, no binary packages  need  to  be  made.   Passed  to

       -F     Specifies  a  normal full build, binary and source packages will be built.  This is
              the same as the default case when no build option is specified.

       --target target
              Calls debian/rules target after having setup the build environment  and  stops  the
              package  build  process  here. If --as-root is also given, then the command is exe‐
              cuted as root (see -r). Note that official targets that are required to be  run  as
              root by the Debian policy do not need this option.

              Only  meaningful  together with --target. Requires that the target be run with root

              Passed unchanged to dpkg-genchanges. See its manual page.

       -a, --host-arch architecture
              Specify the Debian architecture we build for. The architecture of  the  machine  we
              build on is determined automatically, and is also the default for the host machine.

       -t, --host-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type we build for. It can be used in place of --host-arch or
              as a complement to override the default GNU system type of the host  Debian  archi‐

       --target-arch architecture
              Specify  the  Debian  architecture  the binaries built will build for.  The default
              value is the host machine.

       --target-type gnu-system-type
              Specify the GNU system type the binaries built will build for. It can  be  used  in
              place  of  --target-arch or as a complement to override the default GNU system type
              of the target Debian architecture.

              Specify the profile(s) we build, as a comma-separated list. The default behavior is
              to build for no specific profile. Also sets them (as a space separated list) as the
              DEB_BUILD_PROFILES environment variable which  allows,  for  example,  debian/rules
              files to use this information for conditional builds.

              Number of jobs allowed to be run simultaneously, number of jobs matching the number
              of online processors if auto is specified, or unlimited number if jobs is not spec‐
              ified,  equivalent  to  the make(1) option of the same name. Will add itself to the
              MAKEFLAGS environment variable, which should cause all subsequent make  invocations
              to   inherit   the   option.   Also   adds   parallel=jobs   or  parallel=  to  the
              DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable which allows debian/rules files to use  this
              information  for  their  own  purposes.   The  parallel=jobs or parallel= option in
              DEB_BUILD_OPTIONS environment variable will override the -j value if this option is
              given.   Note  that  the  auto value will get replaced by the actual number of cur‐
              rently active processors, and as such will not get propagated to any child process.
              If  the  number of online processors cannot be inferred then the code will fallback
              to using an unlimited number.

       -D     Check build dependencies and conflicts; abort if unsatisfied. This is  the  default

       -d     Do not check build dependencies and conflicts.

       -nc    Do  not  clean  the source tree (implies -b if nothing else has been selected among
              -F, -g, -G, -B, -A or -S).

       -tc    Clean the source tree (using gain-root-command debian/rules clean) after the  pack‐
              age has been built.

              When  dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute part of the build process as root, it pre‐
              fixes the command it executes with gain-root-command if  one  has  been  specified.
              Otherwise,  if  none  has  been specified, fakeroot will be used by default, if the
              command is present.  gain-root-command should start with the name of a  program  on
              the  PATH  and  will  get  as arguments the name of the real command to run and the
              arguments it should take.  gain-root-command can include parameters (they  must  be
              space-separated) but no shell metacharacters.  gain-root-command might typically be
              fakeroot, sudo, super or really.  su is not suitable, since it can only invoke  the
              user's shell with -c instead of passing arguments individually to the command to be

              Building a Debian package usually involves invoking debian/rules as a command  with
              several  standard parameters. With this option it's possible to use another program
              invocation to build the  package  (it  can  include  space  separated  parameters).
              Alternatively  it  can be used to execute the standard rules file with another make
              program (for example by using /usr/local/bin/make -f debian/rules as rules-file).

              Command used to check the .changes file itself and any artifact built referenced in
              the  file.  The command should take the .changes pathname as an argument. This com‐
              mand will usually be lintian.

              Pass  option  opt  to  the  check-command  specified  with   DEB_CHECK_COMMAND   or
              --check-command.  Can be used multiple times.

              Set  the specified shell code hook-command as the hook hook-name, which will run at
              the times specified in the run steps. The hooks will always be executed even if the
              following action is not performed (except for the binary hook).

              Note:  Hooks  can  affect the build process, and cause build failures if their com‐
              mands fail, so watch out for unintended consequences.

              The current hook-name supported are:

              init preclean source build binary changes postclean check sign done

              The hook-command supports the following substitution format string, which will  get
              applied to it before execution:

              %%     A single % character.

              %a     A boolean value (0 or 1), representing whether the following action is being

              %p     The source package name.

              %v     The source package version.

              %s     The source package version (without the epoch).

              %u     The upstream version.

              When dpkg-buildpackage needs to execute GPG to sign a source control (.dsc) file or
              a  .changes file it will run sign-command (searching the PATH if necessary) instead
              of gpg2 or gpg. sign-command will get all the arguments that gpg2 or gpg would have
              gotten. sign-command should not contain spaces or any other shell metacharacters.

              Specify a key-ID to use when signing packages.

       -us    Do not sign the source package.

       -uc    Do not sign the .changes file.

              Force  the signing of the resulting files (since dpkg 1.17.0), regardless of -us or
              -uc or other internal heuristics.

       -z, -Z Passed unchanged to dpkg-source. See its manual page.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-source.  Can be used multiple times.

              Pass option opt to dpkg-genchanges.  Can be used multiple times.

       --admindir dir
              Change the location of the dpkg database. The default location is /var/lib/dpkg.

       -?, --help
              Show the usage message and exit.

              Show the version and exit.

              If set, it will be used as the command to check the .changes file.   Overridden  by
              the --check-command option.

              If  set, it will be used to sign the .changes and .dsc files.  Overridden by the -k

              If set, and containing nocheck the DEB_CHECK_COMMAND variable will be ignored.

              If set, it will be used as the active build profile(s) for the package being built.
              It is a space separated list of profile names. Overridden by the -P option.

   Reliance on exported environment flags
       Even  if  dpkg-buildpackage  exports some variables, debian/rules should not rely on their
       presence and should instead use the respective interface to retrieve the needed values.

   Variables set by dpkg-architecture
       dpkg-architecture is called with the -a and -t parameters forwarded. Any variable that  is
       output by its -s option is integrated in the build environment.

   Compiler flags are no longer exported
       Between  dpkg  1.14.17  and  1.16.1,  dpkg-buildpackage  exported  compiler flags (CFLAGS,
       CXXFLAGS, FFLAGS, CPPFLAGS and LDFLAGS) with values as returned by  dpkg-buildflags.  This
       is no longer the case.

   Default build targets
       dpkg-buildpackage is using the build-arch and build-indep targets since dpkg 1.16.2. Those
       targets are thus mandatory. But to avoid breakages of  existing  packages,  and  ease  the
       transition,  it will fallback to using the build target if make -f debian/rules -qn build-
       target returns 2 as exit code.

       It should be possible to specify spaces and shell metacharacters and initial arguments for
       gain-root-command and sign-command.

       dpkg-source(1), dpkg-architecture(1), dpkg-buildflags(1), dpkg-genchanges(1), fakeroot(1),
       lintian(1), gpg2(1), gpg(1).

Debian Project                              2013-12-12                       dpkg-buildpackage(1)

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